Historians say that navigation and shipping as separate branches of human activity originated about five thousand years ago. The first people to challenge the water element were, apparently, the inhabitants of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. At first, quite urgent needs, and then a craving for the unknown and a thirst for new riches and treasures prompted our ancestors to build boats, raise sails and embark on long journeys. Gradually, people mastered the seas, discovered new lands. They learned to catch the wind and navigate the stars. Since then, mankind has come a long way in the development of the World Ocean, has mastered the art of designing and building various types of ships to achieve economic, military and other goals. It is this enormous path that will be considered in this article, therefore, after reading it, you will definitely find something new and interesting for yourself - something that can be shared with friends and loved ones. After all, history is always relevant and exciting.
People who are not quite versed in maritime affairs tend to call every more or less large floating craft they see ships. But real sea wolves will only grin upon hearing such explanations. So what is a ship and what types of ships are there? The most capacious term, which covers the full range of floating craft, is "ship". Even pedal boats are ships. Any structure that has a waterproof housing and moves, leaning on the water surface (including under water), belongs to this category. There is also known such a concept as "aircraft". This term applies to devices designed to conquer the air.
The concept of "ship", when it comes to a floating craft, has a narrower meaning and used to designate, as a rule, military and large sea vessels. In the era of the sailing fleet, this was the name for three-masted combat units with direct sailing. The modern Russian language fully admits the use of the concept of "ship" in relation to civil ships for various purposes, despite the point of view widespread among naval sailors that this means is exclusively a transport carrying a naval flag. At the same time, the phrase "warship" is also correct and is also used as a legal concept.
Despite the fact that we all came out of the water, no person can travel on it without special means. Most often, fans of this sport choose:
Moreover, in Russia, the choice usually falls on rafts, kayaks and catamarans, in Western countries on kayaks and rafts.
Civil ships are usually classified by purpose. Distinguish between transport, fishing, service and auxiliary and technical fleet watercraft. Transport ships, in turn, are cargo, passenger, cargo-passenger and special. They make up the bulk of the fleet. There are many types of ships involved in cargo transportation. These are bulk carriers (created for bulk cargo), container ships, lighter carriers (transporting floating container barges), refrigerated and trailer ships, timber carriers. Cargo also includes liquid types of sea transport: tankers and gas carriers. If the ship is capable of taking on board more than twelve passengers, then it is classified as a passenger. At the same time, cargo-passenger is called one in which more than 40% of the area is allocated to the cargo. Passenger ships serve regular lines, including transoceanic ones. Another class of such ships is intended for tourist cruises. There are also boats for local connections. Special sea transport includes ferries (including rail), transport tugs and push tugs. Thus, we can conclude that there are a huge number of varieties and classifications of ships, it remains only to learn more about them.
Moving with and without an instructor