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The Onega River is one of those Russian rivers with which an entire era in the history of the country is connected. Its amazing northern beauty still attracts numerous tourists: canoeists, lovers of wooden architecture, fans of discreet northern nature.

The Onega River is located in the Arkhangelsk Region. It flows from Lake Lacha to the Onega Bay of the White Sea, where the city of Onega is located. Lake Lacha is the largest lake in the Arkhangelsk region. That is why the Onega river is already full-flowing and quite wide at its source. Quite recently, a motor ship was sailing on the section between Lake Lacha and the city of Kargopol.

The ancient city of Kargopol is located on the Onega River, three kilometers from the lake. From the water, its white-stone temples look especially expressive. All river rafting usually starts from Kargopol.

For many centuries, the Onega River was a waterway, along which various goods and cargoes were delivered from the center of Russia to the White Sea and back. Waterways were the main ones during the absence of other transport. The North, rich in precious salt, fish, furs, forest, and game, has supplied the Vladimir-Suzdal and then Moscow princedoms with these goods for centuries. Grain and goods for trade with foreign merchants who had trading houses in Arkhangelsk, the only seaport of Russia at that time, were transported to the North.

The river fed, gave work to a huge number of people. A large number of villages were located from the source to the mouth of the Onega River. The river basin was a prosperous, wealthy region. But access to the Baltic Sea and the construction of railways had a fatal impact on the life of the entire North. Life here gradually fell into decay: there was no work, people dispersed in search of something better. What we see now is only a pale shadow of that life.

Relief and climate of the Onega River

The length of the Onega River is 416 kilometers, which pass through the plain. The difference in the level of the river from source to mouth is only 118 meters. There are rapids and rifts on the river, but they are not dangerous. That is why rafting on the river is available to any tourists: with children, without rafting experience, age lovers of water tourism.

In recent decades, the river has become very shallow. Local residents say that back in the 80s of the last century, large barges sailed along the river. Today, wide stretches with a barely noticeable current give way to narrow places with a width of hardly 40 meters. The Onega river basin is quite large and is 56,900 meters. The depth of the river along its entire length is not great: from 2 to 6 meters. In some places, you can wade the river.

The Onega River basin is formed by numerous tributaries: rivers, streams, of which there are more than 3586, as well as melting snow. High water usually occurs in May or June, and in October-December the river already freezes.

There are 14 large rivers in the river basin. The largest tributaries of the left bank of the river are Kena, Koda, Iksa, and the largest right tributaries are Mosha, Kodma, Voloshka. Most of the tributaries are short - 20-30 kilometers, but some (Mosha, Somba) are quite long 70-100 kilometers.

The channel of the Onega River passes through clay soils almost throughout its entire length. Along the banks, especially in the lower reaches, there are many swampy areas. Therefore, the water in the river is dark and opaque. The shores are not high, with the exception of a few places near the sea where there are rocks.

The Onega River basin is a taiga zone. Previously, the river was floatable, and many parts of the coastal forest were affected by logging. The forests surrounding the river are mostly coniferous.

Onega river

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Most of the rivers of the Arkhangelsk region belong to the White Sea basin. Such large rivers as the Northern Dvina, Onega, Kuloi and Mezen flow here. The river network in this region is dense and relatively evenly developed. In total, there are about 2 thousand watercourses with a length of more than 10 km. The main rivers of the region originate near the southern borders and flow in the northwest direction.

The Onega River is one of those Russian rivers associated with an entire era in the history of the country. Its amazing northern beauty today attracts numerous tourists: canoeists, lovers of wooden architecture, fans of discreet northern nature.

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The Arkhangelsk Region occupies a central position in the European North. In the west, it borders on Karelia, in the east, on the Komi and Tyumen region, in the south, on the Vologda and Kirov regions. The area of ​​the territory is 587.3 thousand square meters. m. The region is located in ice, tundra, forest-tundra and taiga natural zones. Since travels in the first three (Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Vaigach, Kolguev, the coast of the polar seas) are significantly complicated by especially harsh climatic conditions and difficulties, only the mainland, taiga part of the Arkhangelsk region, whose area exceeds 300 thousand centuries, is considered. m.

Relief The territory of the Arkhangelsk region as a whole is a vast plain with a weakly pronounced slope towards the White and Barents Seas, where the plain is in places disturbed by end-moraine hillocks formed as a result of the activity of an ancient glacier. In the north-west of the region, powerful moraine heaps have survived with many closed depressions occupied by lakes, with hills merging into whole chains, locally, mountains (for example, the Summer Mountains of the Onega Peninsula). In the south, the Konosh-Nyandoma Upland stands out with a height of up to 250 m, where vast, shallowly incised river valleys calmly alternate with plateau-like watersheds. In the east, the region includes the Northern and Middle Timan-low mountains, consisting of a series of parallel ridges with plateau-like peaks up to 400-450 m high. In the west, along the Onega Bay, the Vetreny Belt ridge stretches. On the flat watershed plateaus in the west of the region, where Paleozoic limestones and marls are closest to the surface, karst phenomena are widespread. Lowlands are usually filled with strata of sea, lacustrine-glacial and alluvial sediments. The change in the relief is influenced by erosion (annually in the Northern Dvina basin up to 660 kg of soil per hectare is washed away), sea or lake surf, karst processes that turn entire areas near Kuloi and Pinega into bad lands, the formation of swamps, accumulating ice activity on lakes and rivers ...

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