Shpitalny, Vladimirov and Serdyukov: unknown; fathers; famous weapon

Anton Chubukov's blog

"VOERE PRAZISIONSTECHNIK GMBH" is one of the most famous European manufacturers of precision parts and components. It began its history with the manufacture of bicycle pumps in 1948. In 1950 the company began to produce air pistols, and from 1955 - small-bore rifles.

Voere 2155 is a modification based on the Mauser K98 receiver.

Voere Rifle Review

The Voere 2155 carbine is a typical Mauseroid. Receivers, which are used to make rifles, were at one time produced for the Spanish army - the Santa Barbara type, and for the Belgian - steel, type FIN. In fact, this is the main reason for the affordable cost of a rifle with such a famous mechanism.

The Mauser receiver is very difficult to manufacture - 711 mechanical operations and 1700 individual procedures. Subject to all the features of the technology, its cost turns out to be too high to be used in the manufacture of budget rifles. Well, the use of ready-made old mechanisms, of course, lowers the price.

An overview of the VOERE 2155 carbine is given in this video:

Advantages and Disadvantages

The laboriousness of the Mauser's manufacturing pays off for its exceptional shooting accuracy and weapon reliability. Thanks to this mechanism, the Voere 2155 rifle has so many advantages and at the same time it is kept within the mid-range price range.

  • A shutter with three vertical lugs reduces horizontal scatter.
  • Controlled feeding of the cartridge - excludes premature feeding to the dispensing line, the extraction is performed with the release of the sleeve. The Voere 2155 carbine can be reloaded even upside down.
  • The claw type ejector provides a controlled feed of the cartridge, as well as the extraction of the cartridge case after the shot. If it gets stuck - the liner is swollen, the cartridge can be removed by bending the front part of the ejector with a screwdriver and knocking out the stuck liner with a ramrod. For most other rifles, this kind of "crash" ends with a breakdown of the ejector.
  • Reliability - the receiver functions even with very high dirt and sand.
  • The shutter is made from a single piece, equipped with holes for the discharge of powder gas.
  • There is a shield to protect the shooter's eye when ejecting unburned powder.
  • "VOERE PRAZISIONSTECHNIK GMBH" offers a lot of additional devices for the rifle: trigger devices, magazines, different stocks and so on.

The disadvantages in this case follow from the advantages of the weapon.

The Voere 2155 carbine - a legendary rifle based on the Mauser system

A carabiner in mountaineering (as well as tourism, rock climbing, promalpe, freeride and ski touring) is necessary to quickly connect or fasten ropes, cables and equipment to each other.

The term "carbine" came to us around the 17th century - this was the name of a latch hook, with which a weapon of the same name was hung from a shoulder strap. For a long time, carbines did not have a clutch and were made of steel. Coupling carbines began to be used about 50 years ago. The presence of a clutch that prevents accidental opening of the carabiner significantly increases safety. For modern carbines, international and regional standards for the quality of materials, design solutions, minimum breaking load, etc. have been approved.

Climbing carbine materials

Modern carbines are made of steel and aluminum alloys (duralumin), as well as titanium and plastic.

Steel carabiners are more durable than aluminum ones. To give them increased anti-corrosion properties, they are chrome plated, galvanized or coated with powder paint. Aluminum (duralumin) alloy carabiners with the same dimensions as steel, are 2-3 times lighter. They are also anodized to enhance their anti-corrosion properties. Today titanium carbines are outdated and not produced, but they are still found in everyday life, i.e. during the Soviet era, they were stamped in significant quantities and were actively used until they were everywhere supplanted by their aluminum counterparts. Titanium is much lighter than steel, and more wear-resistant than aluminum, but, nevertheless, they have a number of disadvantages. Titanium has a low thermal conductivity, and if such a carabiner is used with trigger devices such as a washer, figure eight, etc., where the friction of the rope goes through the carabiner, this can lead to melting of the rope, and then, with a sharp cooling, to the loss of strength of the carabiner. Also, titanium does not like falls very much - this leads to the formation of microcracks. In addition, it is a very difficult material to process, which ultimately affects the price of the product: up to 10 times more expensive than steel.

Auxiliary carbines - caritulas are made of plastic. With their help, you can organize quick and convenient access to equipment and sort your equipment on a harness or outside the backpack. Plastic caritulas are lightweight, withstand a destructive load from 5 kg to 15 kg, are not intended for use as a connecting element and are needed exclusively for hanging equipment.

Forms of climbing carabiners

Pear Carabiners (HMS) (B) (H)

The design of the pear-shaped carabiners is specially designed for use with the UIAA assembly and trigger devices such as washer, figure eight and others.

The geometry of the carabiner bar, its diameter, radius at the point of contact with the rope ensure safe sliding of the rope through the carabiner. The asymmetric shape provides a wide opening of the latch and allows you to use such a carabiner as a drive: attach several pieces of equipment. For example, it is convenient to use it, especially large HMS carabiners, as a "central" carabiner at stations, several people can stand on lanyard in it.

D-Carabiners (B)

Experts believe that the Mauser shutter group cannot be improved, no matter how hard you try. But it is possible to create a perfect hunting weapon on its basis - the Voere 2155 carbine in various modifications.

Page Summary

Kayak in the Mediterranean Introductory part

The idea of ​​kayaking in the Mediterranean Sea began to take shape last year. Then I and Buttercup first came to Turkey, learned about the existence of the Lycian path and even tried to follow it. It turned out that the trail was laid along a very beautiful, clean and deserted (in comparison with Crimea, Sochi and Abkhazia) coast. But another thing became clear - either you should abandon the traditional hiking routine and act like Europeans (make the transitions from village to village, eat in a cafe and spend the night in a bungalow in a camping. It's expensive), or walk in a less hot season and little by little. Or ... The idea lay on the surface. It is strange that only two kayak teams have reported on the Web. The Ukrainians traveled along the route Kuydzhegiz-Kabak on inflatable "Pikes" in 2010, the Kharkov-Moscow crew on the KNB "Marinka 2" extended the route to Kalkan. These guys got a kick out of the weather.

The reports published by our predecessors helped us a lot in preparing the trip. We are especially grateful to the second group for the coordinates of the parking lot with a fresh waterfall. from the very beginning, it should be stipulated that our trip did not have the main goal of passing any route, getting extreme impressions from the wind and waves, mapping as much of the coast as possible on the map of independent tourism, etc. No, no, the primary goal was relaxation: warm azure sea, hot southern air with the smell of rocks and pines, love, sunrises and sunsets, promenades of port towns. Hence - long stops and a small, in fact, distance from start to finish. We did not complete the second task (swim to the Lycian World, Demre), but were quite satisfied with the implementation of the main task.

And so, July, 22 days on the water and by the water. About 250 kilometers, if you count radial swims. Visited the settlements Köyceğiz, Dalyan, Sarıgerme, Göcek, Fethiye, Kayaköy, Oludeniz (Ölüdeniz), Faralya (Faralya), Kumluova), Patara (Gelemiş) and Kalkan (Kalkan). This region - ancient Lycia - is considered one of the most beautiful and rich in historical monuments on the coast of Meditterania. about 68 thousand rubles were spent, including 15,000 rubles for air tickets and 8,000 rubles for a bus from Constantinople (İstanbul) and back.

Equipment, food and water.

For the reasons described above, the equipment was selected with some emphasis on comfort. How did it work?

1. Frame-inflatable kayak "Asya 3". In general, everything is fine. It keeps its course well, it is stable on the wave due to its length and cylinders. Lightweight (22 kg without oars), end-to-end free baggage allowance at the airport). But there were three circumstances that poisoned our boat life. The fault of two of them was negligence in collecting. Firstly, I got the ship without a skirt, and I did not have time to complete it. In the end, there was no flooding in Onega and Solovki, and the water from the oars in the "salon" can be tolerated. Already at Lake Koycegiz, under the opposite headwind, we realized that we were wrong, and in Dalyan we made an ersatz substitute out of film for greenhouses. Secondly, in Moscow, a bag with screws for attaching the skin to the sides was forgotten. Replaced with ropes, bought in the same Dalyan. The third absurdity was caused by long exposure to sea water. The fenders are "rusted" and welded together. The antistapel dragged on for many hours, and if not for the help of a large German family with their silicone and tools, we would have had to run to the Turks for the saw and solve the problem radically. Conclusion: CBNs are suitable for sea travel, but corrosion must be borne in mind.

2. Oars made of anodized aluminum are beyond praise. Lightweight and will not leave any metal marks on your hands. ... Tent Normal Skif-2 A miracle did not happen - whether with an awning or without an awning, but you cannot escape from the sun in it. Apply only at night or in the shade. The arcs are gradually deformed, the walls of the inner tent begin to sag. Insects interfere with sleeping completely without a tent - a small number of mosquitoes, flies and midges were at every parking lot. Conclusion: take the lighter tent, do not take the tent awning, but take a canopy made of dense fabric as a shelter from the sun. ... Summer bedrooms, inexpensive. The main plus is lightness. Oddly enough, some nights were cool enough, the heat of the bags was not enough, we covered ourselves with an awning from the tent. ... Gas burner Kovea - helped in rare cases when there was no fin or really wanted to quickly make coffee. It is also light, but the cylinders for it are sold in the only store in Constantinople (Atlas Outdoor, Karaköy tram stop). Perhaps a gasoline burner is preferable for a similar travel format. ... Clothing. T-shirts, shorts and swimming trunks were few. When moving on water, the sun burns unmercifully the exposed parts of the body, and there are many thorns in the forest. Conclusion: take long-sleeved shirts, lightweight pants for rowing and tight ones for walking in the woods. ... Bags and dry bags. Since on departure from Moscow we tried to meet the permissible weight allowance for luggage, only light small herms were taken with us. Things for which getting wet was not fatal were traveling in ordinary bags, packed in backpacks. Backpacks lay at the bottom of the kayak, every day they soaked up water. Such a system did not cause any particular inconvenience, except for those cases when it was necessary to quickly pull the boat ashore from the surf zone. Pulling out a ship with things together is very difficult. Throwing backpacks overboard is a pity, because the things lying on top usually remained dry. There is no way to carefully unload the kayak. In the end, we coped, but miraculously did not hurt our backs. Conclusion: the more things are in the herms, the better. The harder these herms are, the better. ... Inflatable mattress 190x140. We would never have dragged a 4 kg shnyaga on a hike, but we could afford this luxury on the water. The mattress was bought in Istanbul Decathlon, one metro station from the bus station for 1,500 rubles, and for all 22 days it provided bed comfort on any pebble. There were no punctures, but on the fifth day one of the frame fasteners broke inside. A small hole appeared on the upper side (filled with glue from a kayak repair kit) and a local bump. In this form, the mattress at the end of the journey went to the Germans. We did not take him with us, fearing an advantage on the return flight. Conclusion: a mattress is not very reliable, but very pleasant. 9. Navigator Garmin gpsmap 78 s. It turned out to be practically useless, since it has a habit of turning on from accidental pressing in the bag and very quickly eats up a set of batteries. When the spare batteries ran out, we removed the indestructible and unsinkable device to the bottom of the backpack. We only managed to use it as a speedometer. And they were guided by paper printouts of google satellite maps. 10. Maps. About a day before the start was spent on the compilation of the guide. Satellite imagery, Wikimapia, notes from predecessors and travel sites went into action. With the help of Wikimapia, we put interesting objects on the photographs of the coast, outlined the places of possible parking and shelters. Using booking. I have compiled a list of relatively inexpensive coastal hotels where you can stay if camping life gets bored (not needed) 11. Food. Turks don't go hiking, they go on picnics. There is NO "camping" food in the stores that we are used to! No stew, no condensed milk, no raw smoked sausage. For a lot of money (about 200 rubles), you can come across small cans of tuna, and this is the only fish with a long shelf life. In Turkish shops you can stock up on cereals and pasta, olives and cookies. There is good tea only in large supermarkets, in the shops of seaside villages - bagged dust or dust with the smell of bergamot in iron cans. products with a short shelf life are slightly better. Everywhere you can buy bread (ekmek), milk (süt), cheese (penyir), eggs (yumurta) and frozen chicken (tavuk) in packages of at least a kilogram. Prices for poultry are slightly higher than in Moscow, but meat and meat products are very expensive, from 800 rubles a kilogram. At the same time, all local sausages and sausages are disgusting. It is impossible to eat them, even keeping in mind the amount spent on them.

12. Oh yeah. The springs on the route are relatively poor, but bottled water is available in all shops, and in cities you can collect tap water in cans. We tried to keep our reserves at 20 liters. When the purchased water ran out, they boiled and drank the one that they had collected themselves. There are natural deposits of spring water not far from Göcek and almost reaching Kabak. On Patara beach, two rivers flow into the sea, but this liquid, in my opinion, is not intended for ingestion. Conclusion: the kayak allows you to carry a good supply for drinking and cooking. But opportunities to wash and do the laundry with quality are rare.

In the next series of posts I will talk about the most interesting moments of swimming.

Since 2010, on September 19, Russia celebrates the Day of the Armourer - a professional holiday of workers of defense enterprises. According to one of the versions, Mikhail Kalashnikov asked the President of Russia about "his" triumph.

History knows many names besides the "father" of the most famous machine gun, but even more surnames are hidden - due to modesty, not too well known to a wide range of weapons or twists of fate. Browser m24. u recalls 10 such constructors who changed the world in their own way.

Photo: m24. u/Alexander Avilov

Petr Goryunov

In 1930, Peter, who had served five years in the Red Army as a machine gunner, was working as a mechanic at the Kolomna steam locomotive plant, when a representative of the Kovrov arms and machine gun factory (now the Degtyarev plant) came to them. Goryunov, who was not by hearsay familiar with the Maxim machine gun and its shortcomings, told the guest about his ideas for improving the weapon.

The representative listened and wrote down his data, and later the savvy locksmith was called as a technician in Kovrov under the leadership of Vladimir Fedorov (he will be discussed below). A year later, Goryunov moved to an experimental workshop under the leadership of Degtyarev himself - the creator of a series of machine guns and an anti-tank rifle.

Degtyarev himself said that once master Goryunov came to him - according to reviews, a good specialist, but not an inventor, and proposed a new model of a machine gun, later called SG-43. The weapon was adopted after revision - it was 1942 and the army needed lighter machine guns to replace the heavy "maxims" (the SG-43 together with the wheeled machine weighs 37 kilograms against 70 for the "Maxim").

In total, 80 thousand such machine guns were delivered to the army by the end of the war, their production was closed only in 1961; in particular, the weapon was modernized and installed on the BRDM-1. For the creation of SG-43, Goryunov received the Stalin Prize. The designer died in 1943, when he returned from Moscow, where he debugged the SG before being sent to the front.

Vladimir Fedorov

In 1897, Vladimir Fedorov, a graduate of the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy, entered the Sestroretsk plant for practice. There he met the creator of the three-line rifle Mosin. After practice, Fedorov went to serve in the Main Artillery Directorate.

A carabiner in mountaineering (as well as tourism, rock climbing, promalpe, freeride and ski touring) is necessary to quickly connect or fasten ropes, cables and equipment to each other.

The term "carbine" came to us around the 17th century - this was the name of a latch hook, with which a weapon of the same name was hung from a shoulder strap. For a long time, carbines did not have a clutch and were made of steel. Coupling carbines began to be used about 50 years ago. The presence of a clutch that prevents accidental opening of the carabiner significantly increases safety. For modern carbines, international and regional standards for the quality of materials, design solutions, minimum breaking load, etc. have been approved.

Climbing carbine materials

Modern carbines are made of steel and aluminum alloys (duralumin), as well as titanium and plastic.

Steel carabiners are more durable than aluminum ones. To give them increased anti-corrosion properties, they are chrome plated, galvanized or coated with powder paint. Aluminum (duralumin) alloy carabiners with the same dimensions as steel, are 2-3 times lighter. They are also anodized to enhance their anti-corrosion properties.

Climbing carabiner manufacturing process

Titanium carbines are outdated today and are not produced, but they are still found in everyday life, i.e. during the Soviet era, they were stamped in significant quantities and were actively used until they were everywhere supplanted by their aluminum counterparts. Titanium is much lighter than steel, and more wear-resistant than aluminum, but, nevertheless, they have a number of disadvantages. Titanium has a low thermal conductivity, and if such a carabiner is used with trigger devices such as a washer, figure eight, etc., where the friction of the rope goes through the carabiner, this can lead to melting of the rope, and then, with a sharp cooling, to the loss of strength of the carabiner. Also, titanium does not like falls very much - this leads to the formation of microcracks. In addition, it is a very difficult material to process, which ultimately affects the price of the product: up to 10 times more expensive than steel.

Auxiliary carbines - caritulas are made of plastic. With their help, you can organize quick and convenient access to equipment and sort your equipment on a harness or outside the backpack. Plastic caritulas are lightweight, withstand a destructive load from 5 kg to 15 kg, are not intended for use as a connecting element and are needed exclusively for hanging equipment.

Forms of climbing carabiners

There are many forms, but key ones can be distinguished.

Pear Carabiners (HMS) (B) (H)

The pear-shaped carabiners are specially designed for use with the UIAA assembly and washer-type triggers (for example, Petzl Reverso and Black Diamond Atc-Guide), figure eight (for example, Petzl Huit Antibrulure and Petzl Pirana Black) and others ( e.g. Kong Full Alu).

The geometry of the carabiner bar, its diameter, radius at the point of contact with the rope ensure safe sliding of the rope through the carabiner. The asymmetric shape provides a wide opening of the latch and allows you to use such a carabiner as a drive: attach several pieces of equipment. For example, it is convenient to use, especially large HMS carabiners (Black Diamond Rocklock Magnetron and Petzl William Triact-Lock), as a "central" carabiner at stations, several people can stand on lanyard in it.

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