Rock climbing and its types: a complete overview for beginners

Rock climbing and its types: a complete overview for beginners

Each rock, each peak, as well as each route on the same rock is unique and beautiful in its own way. There is no one of the most beautiful rocks in the world! Someone prefers snow-capped peaks, while others prefer rocks sliding into the water.

The overview presents the most beautiful climbing sites in Thailand, France, Spain, Mallorca, USA, Ireland and Greece.

Rock Climbing Thailand

The combination of sea and rocks is beautiful in itself! Plus a great opportunity to alternate passive rest with active, while taking advantage of all the benefits of civilization offered by hospitable Thailand.

There are limestone cliffs in Krabi province. This is the perfect spot for overwater solo climbing. To characterize this place, you can draw a parallel: Bali is for surfers, so Krabi is for climbers.

Due to the varied topography of the rocks, you can master different climbing techniques:

  • along smooth vertical walls;
  • along cracks;
  • along stalactites;
  • along cornices.

For rock climbing, it is better to come here from November to March. True climbers will appreciate Railay Beach and Tonsai Beach in Krabi Province. With over 600 routes, climbers of all skill levels will find their ideal path. It is difficult to describe the delight that you experience from the landscape you see from a conquered height.

Unforgettable route to Railay Lagoon. The trail is very interesting and easy for people familiar with climbing rope. But beginners will put their climbing skills to the test and experience an awesome adrenaline rush. The beauty of the lagoon is worth it!


This country not only boasts the Eiffel Tower, but also some of the best bouldering spots in Europe. There is a French system for short difficult routes and it was the French athletes who were the first to reach category 8a - thanks to the rapid development of bouldering, supported by the availability of suitable rocks. These are the famous boulders L'Elephant and Trois Pignons near the city of Fonteblo. Climbers enjoy magnificent views of the surrounding forests and sandy white beaches.

It's worth getting to know rock climbing in a friendly environment, reducing stress and adrenaline to a minimum (this is for a start). The ideal place to start is with lessons at the climbing wall. Once the first steps are completed, you can go to objects of natural origin.

Climbing styles and types

Climbing can be done in a dozen different ways, for every taste, physical fitness, level of extreme and age. My review should help a beginner to make a choice and direct him a little on the ascent path))).


Performed without belay (only crash pads) on small rocky boulders and the like within the climbing wall. The most favorite rocks for practice are granite with long deep cracks, loose relief sandstone, limestone and volcanic influx.

The climber only uses rock shoes, chalk hand rub and bouldering mats in case of a fall. The track has a length of no more than 6 meters, which is relatively safe for life and is well suited for training. In bouldering, the emphasis is on developing finger tenacity and endurance.

The discipline is very popular all over the world, and since the 1990s Bouldering competitions have been held with rating systems developed for it. In addition, rock climbing will be featured in the 2020 Olympics in three categories. This sport has long fought for the right to become Olympic.

World famous extreme climbers John Gill, Jason Kehl and Alex Honnold turned bouldering into a so-called "free solo", which will be discussed below - they conquered steep boulders above 16 meters and V16 difficulty without insurance and equipment ...

Man-made boulders made of concrete and plastic are very convenient for mastering the discipline, since each hold is color-coded for difficulty.

Building (Buildering, edificeering, urban climbing, structuring, skywalking, or stegophily)

Exciting and dangerous industrial extreme. The rock climber conquers the walls of buildings, bridges and other man-made structures (including abandoned and decaying ones). Climbing is practiced with or without insurance, and is often a criminal offense. Night building is more popular precisely because of problems with the law.

The documented history of building begins in 1895 with Geoffrey Winthrop Young, a Cambridge student, who published the Trinity College Building Guide (he has 9 such editions).

Portal about mountaineering, rock climbing, mountain tourism

At the moment there is no photograph of the classic "anchor", but the projection and cross-sectional profile of this device can be seen in the figure below (option A).

Modern rock anchor (photo: Tatiana Senchenko)

Initially, such "anchors" were forged, then they were turned from alloy steel, two or three sizes. The steel sharp beak made it possible to drive the "anchor" into cracks covered with mud or clay. The main disadvantage is their weight, bulkiness and, possibly, some difficulties in manufacturing. Perhaps that is why the classic "anchor" has been replaced by their modern modification (picture above, option B) - a hook for self-belay on the rocks, as well as a variety, an ice "anchor" (picture above, option C), which can be slightly knocked out into the ice with an icebay or a hammer.

Modern Black Diamond ice anchor

Curiously, in the early 80s, homemade ice hammers were often called ice "anchors". The image of the old classic "anchor", I think, can be found in the old mountaineering literature (up to 1985 inclusive), the image of modern analogues (including ice) is given in the catalogs of climbing equipment of various companies (in particular Salewa). Perhaps they are in the catalogs of "Kant", "Trial", etc.

Lanyard hook on the rocks. The last time I saw a couple of classic "anchors" among the mountaineering "iron" in the barn of one KMS in the year eighty-seventh. Even then, to my question "what is this?", The answer was given: "Yes, so - now it's history." Although who knows, they say that the new is very often well forgotten old.

* More information on modern anchor hooks

* Additional information on anchor hook load at fall

Further, lead seals can be attributed to such mountaineering rudiments (figure below, option D). Perhaps out of use due to their weight and single use. Often, after use, the lead was deformed and was not subject to further use. But, I think, such a seal, driven into the crack with a hammer, takes all the shape of the crack and wedges there tightly, which is quite convenient for organizing descents.

Roof safety attachments

"The knot will be tied, the knot will be untied ..." - this is how the Russian singer Alena Apina sings in a once popular song. Only here in mountaineering the knot must be tied so that there is no unexpected "untie", but at the same time, if necessary, it should be easily untied.

Most of the climbing knots are of marine origin. In the beginning there was a sea, a boat and a sail ... Hence the nautical names of many knots.

Quite often we use various knots in everyday life, without even thinking about their name, origin and application in mountaineering or sailing.

When classifying nodes in mountaineering, most often they rely on their purpose and distinguish 3 categories:

  • tying (or for tying);
  • tying (or for tying and loops);
  • auxiliary.

Knots for tying ribbons and ropes

In the first case, the most commonly used:

  • straight (sea);
  • grapevine;
  • clew;
  • weaving.

  • counter ;
  • bramshkotovy ;
  • academic.

Direct node

The straight knot is very simple to perform: both ends of the rope are parallel on one side.

Its main drawback is spontaneous "sliding", i.e. a tendency to self-untie.

Perhaps it is impossible to find a sports or extreme hobby that could not be done in Russia due to the lack of suitable terrain, conditions or other natural components.

Russia is so big that there are mountains, rivers, seas, oceans, forests, steppes in it ...

Yes, the Greek island of Kalymnos is mythically beautiful and attractive for young climbers.

Yes, the dream of every climbing pro is the LA RAMBLA Direct rock in sunny Spain.

However, in Russia there are many wonderful places for rock climbing.

Krasnoyarsk Pillars

The Krasnoyarsk Pillars undoubtedly top this list. After all, many famous rock climbers and climbers began their journey here, including the Abalakov brothers.

The places here are truly fabulous. The pillars offer views of the tributaries of the Yenisei. Huge taiga fir trees against the backdrop of rocks create a fantastic landscape.

For more than 150 years, residents of Krasnoyarsk have been sent here to engage in active recreation. Here even the concept of columnism was born. It's not just rock climbing, it's a way of life.

There is a conditional division into rocky areas:

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