River transport in Russia: pros and cons

Types of water transport in tourism

Transport (from lat. transporto - transfer, move, transfer) - a set of means designed to move people, goods [1] from one place to another.


[edit] Transport objects

Transport includes several aspects; they can be roughly broken down into infrastructure, vehicles, and management. Infrastructure includes transport networks or communication routes used (roads, railways, air corridors, canals, pipelines, bridges, tunnels, waterways, etc.), as well as transport hubs or terminals where cargo is reloaded or passengers are transferred from one mode of transport to another (for example, airports, train stations, bus stops and ports).

Generally, vehicle control refers to control over a system, such as traffic signals, arrows on railway tracks, flight control, etc., as well as rules (inter alia, rules for financing the system: toll roads, tax on fuel, etc.).

In a broad sense, networking is a task of civil engineering and urban planning, vehicle development is mechanical engineering and specialized branches of applied science, and management is usually specialized within a network, or refers to management research or systems engineering.

[edit] Vehicle categories

Transport is divided into three categories:

  • public transport
  • non-public transport
  • personal or individual transport

Public transport should not be confused with public transport (public transport is a subcategory of public transport). Public transport serves trade (carries goods) and the population (passenger traffic). Non-public transport - intradepartmental transport. Finally, personal transport includes cars, bicycles, yachts, and private planes.

Transport network: rivers

The positive features of this type of transport are the high carrying capacity (on deep-water rivers), the relatively low cost of transportation and the cost of organizing shipping.

River transport uses navigable rivers, canals, lakes and other inland water bodies, so its development and geography are largely determined by natural conditions.

In this respect, many countries of North and Latin America, Europe and Asia have great opportunities for organizing river navigation.

The following main rivers and canals form the transport network:

  • In Europe - Seine, Rhine with tributaries, Elbe, Odra, Vistula, Danube, Dnieper, Volga, Don, etc.
  • In Asia - Ganges, Indus , Ayeyarwad, Yangtze, Ob with Irtysh, Yenisei with Angara, Lena, Amur, Great Canal (China), etc.
  • In North America - Mississippi with tributaries, St. Lawrence, Mackenzie, Coastal Canal (USA) , Great Lakes, etc.
  • In Latin America - Amazon and Parana.
  • In Africa. - Congo, Niger, Nile.
  • In Australia - Murray with the Darling tributary.

The total length of navigable rivers and canals in the world is 550 thousand km, of which almost half falls on Russia and China (more than 100 thousand km each), the USA (more than 40) and Brazil (30 thousand km ). In terms of the total cargo turnover of inland waterways, the United States is in first place, China is second, Russia is third, followed by Germany, Canada and the Netherlands.

River transport serves mainly the domestic needs of individual states, but sometimes it also carries out international transport (for example, along the Rhine and Danube rivers in Europe, or along the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes in North America). There are 214 so-called international rivers in the world (Danube, Rhine, Amazon, Zambezi, Nile, Congo, etc.).

River transport problems

The history of water transport goes back many millennia. River shipping has historically been one of the main modes of long-distance travel on the territory of present-day Russia.

Today's river fleet, alas, cannot please with good data. Transportation by water transport remains popular on rivers such as the Neva, Volga or Kama, but this method of transporting passengers and goods is on the verge of a serious crisis.

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