The development of humanity is accompanied by an increase in the world's population, as well as growing demands for resources from the economy. One of these resources is fresh water, the shortage of which is quite acute in a number of regions of the Earth. In particular, more than a third of the world's population, that is, more than 2 billion people, does not have permanent access to a drinking resource. It is expected that in 2020 water scarcity will act as one of the main problems hindering the further development of humankind. This is especially true for developing countries, where:
The earth is rich in water, i.e. 70% of the Earth's surface is covered with water (approx. 1.4 billion km 3). However, most of the water is saline and only about 2.5% of the world's water reserves (approx. 35 million km 3) is fresh water (see Figure World Water Sources, UNESCO, 2003).
Only fresh water can be used for drinking, but 69% of it falls on snow cover (mainly Antarctica and Greenland), approx. 0% (10.5 million km 3) is groundwater, and lakes, artificial lakes and rivers account for less than 0.5% of all fresh water.
In the water cycle, 79% of the total amount of precipitation falling on the Earth falls on the ocean, 2% - on the lakes and only 19% - on the land surface. Only 2,200 km 3 penetrates underground reservoirs per year.
Many experts call the "water issue" one of the most serious challenges to humanity in the future. The period 2005-2015 was declared by the UN General Assembly as an international decade for action "Water for Life".
Figure. World sources of fresh water: sources of distribution of about 35 million km 3 of fresh water (UNESCO 2003)
According to UN experts, in the 21st century, water will become a more important strategic resource than oil and gas, since a ton of clean water in an arid climate is already more expensive than oil (Sahara Desert and North Africa, center of Australia, South Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Central Asia).
The existence of society cannot be imagined without the use of water, land, forest and mineral resources. However, the key task of mankind is the rational use of not only natural potential, but also human labor. Resource statistics allows you to assess the state and effectiveness of their use in all spheres of human activity.
Russia. Population statistics in 2018 are more than 146 million people. According to the Federal State Statistics Service, the resource of the Russian labor force is 76.1 million people. The indicator is 103 thousand less than in 2017. About 72.5 million people are employed. 3.6 million are considered unemployed. The unemployment rate in rural areas is higher than in cities (7.3% versus 4%). Labor force statistics for Q1 2018:
Labor force statistics in Russia give priority to the Central Federal District. More than 21.4 million able-bodied citizens live here. Of these, about 20.77 million are employed. 638.8 thousand are considered unemployed. The employment rate in the Central Federal District is 62.4%. In the country, the indicator is 59.8%.
Labor force balance statistics and forecast for 2018–2020 .:
Law enforcement functions in the field of labor and employment are carried out by Rostrud (Federal Service for Labor and Employment). Official resource - . ostrud. u /.
Belarus. Labor force statistics of the Republic of Belarus are 4.34 million. able-bodied citizens. The country employs 4.32 million people. The indicator is 0.9% thousand less than it was in 2017.
Resource statistics indicate a high level of employment among citizens aged 30–34 years. The indicator of this age category reaches 92.6%.
70.7% of men and 64.1% of women are employed in Belarus. Among the urban population, the employment rate is 67.6%. In rural areas, the indicator is 65.7%. Employment and unemployment statistics:
In May 2018, the nominal average monthly wage was RUB 943.9. At the beginning of the year it was 859.
The number of labor migrants in the country has decreased in recent years. Labor force migration statistics show that in 2017, 13.89 thousand foreign citizens received work permits in the Republic of Belarus. In 2016, the indicator was 19.93 thousand. Statistics of the use of labor resources by country:
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