It happened in early June. Hysterically roaring with two engines, the An-24 passenger aircraft successfully landed in the village of Chara, Kalarsky district. The dilapidated building of the local air terminal smiled, winked and at the same moment turned away from the arrivals, as if immediately forgotten about their existence. A valiant group of seven men stubbornly dragged the tightly packed bales to the nearby Ural. This was us - the Open Kodar expedition.
Kalashnikov Andrey - responsible for the technical part of the hike, a strong-willed and experienced rescuer of the search and rescue service (PSS) of Chita, who entered, perhaps, all horizons, peaks and all the waters of Transbaikalia, walked first, happily waving his hand to the guys from the Kalarsky district service.
Kirill Bodrov - the organizer of the Open Kodar project - walked with a smile, fervently anticipating the beauty of the taiga marshes, the romance of taiga life, the madness of the mountains, rivers, and the elements of the North.
Mikhail Topolev is a videographer with two backpacks, a young and promising, clearly representing the goal and the possibility of its implementation on videotape. I walked confidently and especially easily.
Oleg Topolev is a journalist, father of Mikhail Topolev. He kept close to his son. He was recruited into the position of good deeds of a ship cook of an expeditionary boat, who undertook the obligation to cook, bake and cook a rich stew, sweet tea and snacks for the brave crew every day.
Ivanov Vadim - cheerful Mr. "Your Honor", a fighting, dashing rescuer of the PSS of Chita, Andrey's right hand. Vadim's sharpness and optimism will make the route of any complexity inevitably turn into a monosyllabic walk along the embankment with a glass of "Bacardi" in his hands - he walked as usual without unnecessary fuss.
Alexander Brusensky is the rescuer of the Chita PSS, whose life credo convinced him to spend an honestly earned vacation among a company of desperate people with a completely empty stomach. It's all about Alexander's testing of the physical ability of a person to survive the path ahead without eating any edible food throughout the entire route. That is, not eating at all. Actually, Karl!
Roman Kholmogorov is a tourist, the author of this article, who ended up on the list of the expedition by the last train with the task of realizing, remembering and putting on paper all the valuable events of the expedition, making the chronicle public, informing the population so that others would also know ...
June was in the yard, the first summer month, its 11th day. Summer came to the land where we arrived with a great delay, and perhaps with reluctance. Here, the ice from the rivers was still just melting, the soil thawed and nourished barely awakened trees, the greenery was not green enough, the ubiquitous midges were not fast enough.
Kodar. Our group set foot on the land of the North. The journey was to be long and harsh. The purpose of the expedition is the incomprehensibly distant, unidentified deep, fish-rich lake Nichatka. It attracts researchers, disturbs the thoughts of the inhabitants, makes avid fishermen dream of an innumerable rich catch. The lake, located on the northern slope of the Kodar ridge, looks like Baikal in miniature. Few have been, few know. Shoot a film about the unknown, show the unseen, pave the path, get there, dive to the bottom. This is definitely a good purpose. A dream come true that awaits fulfillment.
The Ingoda River is a waterway in the Trans-Baikal Territory. For residents of the central regions of Russia, this region remains unknown, and is associated with a harsh climate, the purest Lake Baikal and the Trans-Siberian Railway. But the Trans-Baikal Territory is famous for its numerous rivers and streams, each of which is unique and beautiful in its own way.
Geographically Ingoda flows through Transbaikalia, without going beyond its limits. The river begins in a mountainous area, surrounded by taiga. To be more precise, the waterway starts its way from the Hentei ridge. The stream name has several versions of the name. The first of these is interpreted as “a flow that turns to the right”. Another version has Evenk roots, in which the name Ingoda literally means "sandy shoal". Russian pioneers appeared in the river valley in the 17th century.
The Ingoda River is suitable for navigation on the section of the channel from the city of Chita to the mouth. But only small-tonnage vessels can pass. In general, the river valley is rich in natural resources. There are deposits of precious stones, rocks, mineral springs.
The Ingoda River on the map flows through the entire Trans-Baikal Territory. The river bed winds repeatedly, forming bends. The river valley is practically not inhabited, the only large city on the river is Chita. The energy center, the administrative capital of the region and Transbaikalia, one of the coldest cities in Russia. In some parts of the valley, the Trans-Siberian Railway runs parallel to the riverbed. In several places the stream is crossed by road bridges. Other settlements on the banks of the waterway: Darasun, Bolshaya Tura, Urulga, Galkino.
The Ingoda River is a typical mountain stream flowing in a cold climatic zone. Due to the remoteness from industrial and simply populated cities, the river has a favorable ecological situation. The water area was chosen by cold-loving representatives of the ichthyofauna. Some areas are rich in crayfish.
Amur minnow, common and Chernskiy minnow, gudgeon, rudd, Amur ide, burbot, catfish predominate here. The stagnant areas are inhabited by the goldfish, loach, grub horse. In the upper reaches and tributaries, there are grayling, lenok, char, less often taimen. Earlier, there were massive visits of representatives of sturgeon in the lower reaches of the Ingoda.
At the source, the Ingoda river is a stormy stream carrying its waters along a narrow corridor. Rapids, rifts, eddies are regularly encountered on this site. Ingoda resembles a mountain river flowing at the bottom of the gorge, surrounded by rocky shores. The area is uninhabited, the banks are overgrown with centuries-old forest.
The beauty of forests and deserts, turbulent rivers and reserves is not all that nature has given to the Trans-Baikal Territory. Just imagine: more than three hundred mineral springs! Some of them are compared with the Kislovodsk narzans, others are completely unique in their composition. There are especially many of them in the east, where the sanatoriums of the Trans-Baikal Territory actively use mineral springs in the treatment of patients.
But the south is famous for its baths. The temperature of hot water, saturated with useful microelements, reaches +49 degrees. If you are not an expert, then the terms "radon bicarbonate sodium" or "chloride-sulphate-sodium" will hardly tell you anything. But experts will determine what kind of water is suitable for the treatment of certain diseases.
Lakes provide healing mud. The forests fill the air with essential oils. All this wealth of the sanatorium of the Trans-Baikal Territory in 2021 is effectively used, combining with new technologies that allow accurate diagnostics.
Let's start with the fact that Darasun is a whole resort in the Trans-Baikal Territory, and the sanatorium of the same name offers wellness and medical procedures, rehabilitation plus ecotourism in one place. Residents knew about the benefits of local mineral water 250 years ago. Scientists studied the composition and came to the conclusion that carbon dioxide gives the healing properties to water. It also contains magnesium, calcium, iron and other elements.
Today the Darasun narzan is the main one in the local balneotherapy. The sanatorium accepts patients with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, diabetes mellitus, and gynecological problems. Diagnostics are carried out, healing mud, acupuncture, massages and other methods are also used in the treatment.
Price for rest with treatment: from 1970 rubles. for an adult, from 1580 rubles. per child per day
Among the mountains and taiga, where the air is fresh and the sun almost always shines, there is the Trans-Baikal resort Molokovsky and the sanatorium of the same name. The nature itself is soothing here, and one of the profile directions of the health resort is just the treatment of the nervous system.
The place is also famous for the fact that the radon baths, which are effectively used here, are of such concentration that they are also suitable for showers and irrigation. There is a whole balneological complex, doctors, in addition to procedures with mineral water, carry out mud therapy, ozone and reflexology. Specialists work with modern diagnostic equipment.
Do we often see tourists walking around Chita? For example, Charsk Sands are included in the list of the most beautiful places in Russia along with the Kamchatka Valley of Geysers, Elbrus and Lake Baikal, where, by the way, millions of travelers from all over the world go. But on the Chara sands - no. The Archangel Michael Church, better known to us as the Chita Museum "Church of the Decembrists", is included in the largest European guidebook "Lonely Planet" as a worthy place to visit. And you ask the curators of this museum complex how often guests visit them. They, of course, will answer that they are visiting! Because it is somehow unpleasant to admit that the place where you work, about which you know a lot of interesting things and which really deserves a visit, is on the outskirts of the attention of both the residents of Chita and those who come to the regional center. And then - no, no, and the curious come in. But the words "often", "a lot", "continuously" will not have to be heard.
Irina Ermolina, Director General of the Trans-Baikal Bureau of International Tourism Sputnik, has been organizing inbound tours for many years: “We specialize in Chinese tourists mainly. I can tell you for sure, from experience, that Chita is unpopular among the Chinese. There are no objects that would be interesting to them. Monuments do not arouse our interest in them, but what else to see? There is more or less demand for the Daursky Reserve, Nerchinsk, Borzya, but there is a border zone, a regime, many problems arise because of this. Arakhley is very interesting for visitors, especially in summer. But, you see, people are ready to pay money for service, for convenience, and what can we offer them? There are no equipped, well-groomed beach areas, no decent catering establishments, no entertainment of any kind, even elementary bowling and billiards at the bases of Arakhley. Garbage is everywhere, the shore is strewn with "savages", and you know how this contingent rests with us? I'm not even talking about the fact that the access roads are in a terrible state. So think, why should tourists go for such a vacation? "
Roads as one of the main Russian troubles have become an obstacle for tourists and on the way to the Heetei caves, located 95 kilometers southeast of the village of Mogoytuy on the right bank of the Onon River. Two karst caves, unique for the Trans-Baikal climate, about which there are many legends, where, according to the Buryat belief, one can communicate with spirits and pray to the Creator, are the center of attention of extreme tourists.
“You can only get there by an all-terrain vehicle. How do you take out a group of tourists when there is no road? Even if it did appear, another problem would arise: we do not have a single convoy in our city where you can rent comfortable buses. Today it is possible only through private traders, and there are high prices. This would increase the cost of the tour. Even now, Chita is not cheap for visitors, and the price does not justify itself, - says Irina Ermolina. - In addition to all these problems, we, travel agencies, are faced with the lack of infrastructure that would be developed to work with tourists. There are no good hotels, and tourists are now demanding, they know what they want to get for their money. A hotel that does not have, say, WI-FI does not suit them. Prices, again, for staying in our hotels are rather big, and the quality of services provided, conditions are so-so. All these factors are negative. "
From a conversation with the director of the regional bureau of international tourism, I understood: the city of Chita with its museums, temples, datsans, which, to my surprise, are also not honored by tourists (especially Chinese, apparently due to the similarity cultures) - a kind of transit point where you can stop, base, leave things. Tourists prefer to leave for impressions away, to nature, sometimes to the wildest places. Are luxury conditions, excellent internet speed and dispensers in rooms so important for extreme lovers? It seemed to me that such a category of vacationers, even in a high, could reach the object of attention by virgin paths, climb, crawl, climb, spend the night in the open air, make fire. They are in the majority.
“There would be lovers of both wild and urban recreation. And they are not going to such "holes", - says Irina Ermolina. - But who knows about Transbaikalia? After all, the region needs to be presented at international exhibitions, to participate in forums. Our bureau deals with this, but this is too little. For the second year now, the Ministry of Tourism has not made contact and interaction with business, and without their support it is very difficult for us to work. We ourselves do what we can. "
Last year, Sputnik's operators developed a one-two-day tour along the route: Borzya - Zabaikalsk - Krasnokamensk. In 2014, 12 thousand tourists from the south of China took this route. Guests were entertained as best they could: they were invited to a wedding, offered to participate in rituals, in tea parties (the locals baked buns and treated them to them). The young project "Lily invites you to visit" is also in demand among foreigners.
“I always say that the municipality and the Ministry of Tourism should work with the population. After all, people can be explained that attracting tourists to villages, villages, small towns is a financially profitable event. A courtyard, a hut is beautifully equipped here, a tourist will be drawn to these little things, and you, please, sell your agricultural products here. Why not? Everything can be arranged, but the forces of some travel agencies are not enough here, ”assures Ermolina.
Several years ago, while checking into a hotel in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, I heard a conversation between the administrator and several German tourists: “Will you travel by yourself? Or do you prefer excursions? " - asked the administrator. " Excursions! Only excursions, we want to learn more, understand and remember everything! "- the Germans answered unequivocally. Excursion tours are really common and preferred by many visitors. Chita firms can hardly offer a quality tour led by a knowledgeable guide. According to Irina Ermolina, professional guides and tour guides in Transbaikalia have not been trained for a long time. There are fewer and fewer people who know how to “serve up beauty on a served dish”. Travelers often look for such expert experts on their own, through acquaintances, via the Internet.
Acting Head of the State Budgetary Institution "Directorate of the Ivano-Arakhleisky Natural Park" Svetlana Lazarevskaya - Candidate of Geographical Sciences, member of the Russian Geographical Society.
“I am very interested in the Trans-Baikal Territory and what the Chita surroundings are rich in, in particular,” says Svetlana Lazarevskaya. “For many years I have been working as a coach in sports tourism and orienteering, and the main training grounds and weekend tours take place near the regional center.”
The Nercha River is an artery connecting the Olekminsky Stanovik area with the eastern border of historical Dauria - a wide stream called Shilka. After which there is already another mountainous and climatic one. The entire river route is an amazing journey among the gentle banks, but with very close standing emerald peaks (the exception is the high walls of the Chersky ridge in Kyker). On the peaks, they frighten granite and mica outliers with their toothy teeth. The "highlight" of the stream: it is the birthplace of the first Russian-Chinese relations - the signing of an agreement on the division of spheres of influence.
The length of the Nercha River is 580 kilometers. Its pool is 27,500 sq. km. The maximum width is 300 meters (in Priiskovoye). Depth - up to 4 m. The river flows through 2 regions of the Trans-Baikal Territory. The direction is south with a semicircular offset to the west. Freezing up lasts from early October to late April. High water occurs in May. The rise in water level is significant. Depends on the rains. The average annual water consumption is 90 cubic meters per second. The food is mixed, "Far Eastern type". There are more than 100 tributaries (together with streams). The most significant are Uldurga, Nerchugan, Akima, Elekan and Akuya.
The Nercha River was "born" in the era of the emergence of the surrounding geological formations. Back in the Proterozoic. People have been living on its edges since the Paleolithic. Only one culture of the Stone Age left distinct traces about itself - the direct ancestors of the Keto-Even-Evenks. Closer to our era, they mix with the southerners (the Manchu language group) and form the historical Kets, Evens and Evenks. The weapon of the aborigines has always been palm trees - heavy knives that were attached to the shaft (they were the ethnic marker). The first Russian description of the Nercha River was left to us by the expedition of M. Porfiltsev, who penetrated the upper reaches of the Nerchinsk from Yakutsk along the Lena and Vitim. It was Nercha who led the Russian pioneers to Shilka (that was mastered already in the next, XVIII century). Hydronym comes from the Evenk words "ner" ("wild rosemary") and "cha" ("overgrown"). This stream is really overgrown with wild rosemary (too white flowers cannot be missed in the thicket, even from afar). The Treaty of Nerchinsk with China (1689), signed here, somewhat diminished the ardor of Russian discoverers and prospectors. As a strong power, the Celestial Empire demanded "to disperse peacefully" no further than the central part of Dauria.
It is curious that this was the first official conversation between our country and the most powerful state in Asia. Before that, everything was limited to minor skirmishes ... However, since the beginning of the 18th century, the entire Nercha River has already been in the hands of our Fatherland. Ostrogs are overgrown with plantations. And the size of Nerchinsk brings it closer and closer to the status of a district town (which it is now). By the way, he received the title of the city back in 1689. Indeed, such an important document was concluded in the Nerchinsk prison ... The first roads are being laid (most of them continue to stretch already in the Soviet era). Closer to the mouth, the Nercha river has long been passable for fairly large ships. One of them in 1864 managed to go 100 kilometers above Nerchinsk. There was something to transport - on the Nerchinsk tributaries they found gold, tourmaline, limestone, marble and semi-precious stones. But the greatest wealth of this region is beryl deposits (2 types of beryl - emerald and aquamarine we know). The entire complex of deposits was named "Nerchinsk Katorga". Since the beginning of the nineteenth century (when the Treaty of Nerchinsk lost its force, and all of Dauria was in dense "development" in Russia), here many people managed to wave a pick. Including the Decembrists. The rest of the "unreliable" floated excellent Daurian forest. Note that the transport use of the Nercha River led to the successful peasant development of the lower and central lands of the channel. In 1896, serious marinas and bridges appeared. In the Civil War, the forces of the Trans-Baikal Cossacks hiding in Manchuria (under the leadership of Esaul Semyonov) united with the interventionists (including the Japanese and the Horchin Mongols who seized the railroad).
They delivered several minor blows to the Red Army. As a result, the counter-revolutionaries managed to restore power. But only in a few villages. And not for long. The genius of the red commanders (Sergei Lazo and Stepan Seryshev) did not allow military operations in Dauria to drag on for a long time. During the Bolshevik times, mining continued in the river basin. At the end of the Soviet period, as well as in the 90s, many tracts receive the status of natural monuments. Thanks to this decision, there is no hydroelectric power station on this reservoir.
The source of the Nercha River lies at the junction of the Olekminsky Stanovik with the neighboring mountain ranges. At an altitude of over 1200 meters. The stream is formed by the confluence of the Severnaya and Yuzhnaya Nercha streams. Geographically, this is the Tungokochensky region of Transbaikalia. The source of the Nercha River is a 20-meter wide watercourse (very shallow), winding between swampy areas, densely overgrown with Daurian larch and Daurian birch. A couple of open spaces meet here and there. At some distance from the water line, the current is accompanied by alpine uplands. Location "wild".
Mouth of the Nercha River - exit to Shilka, 240 meters wide. The Riviera is flat on both sides. The right bank is one of the recreational spaces of the Priiskovy town (mixed forest, stone bank). The left bank is a spacious stone spit, behind which the bank abruptly turns into an almost bald hilly massif. There is a railway along the Mayak hill. Both sides administratively belong to the Nerchinsk region.
Basin of the Nercha River
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