The Belaya River (the second name is Agidel) belongs to the medium-sized rivers, but in Bashkiria it is one of the most important waterways of the republic. It is the largest left tributary of the Kama, which in turn flows into the Volga, one of the largest rivers in the world.
Left tributaries: the Syun River, 209 km long, Dema - 535 km, Urshak - 193 km, Chermasan –186 km, Ashkadar –165 km.
Right tributaries: Bystry Tanyp rivers, 345 km long, Ufa –918 km, Sim –239 km, Nugush –235 km, Zilim –215 km.
In the state water register of Russia, the Belaya river is listed under the number 10010200112111100016731. The river is fed by two springs and melting snow.
White freezes by the end of November. The water remains under the ice cover for 170 days, its thickness can reach 60 centimeters. The river throws off the shackles of its ice shell in mid-April. At this time, the water level rises by 6-9 meters, sometimes it reaches 11 meters, like in 1882.
The Belaya flood lasts a month, at this time not only the floodplain of the river is flooded, but also the nearby farmland, forests and even urban areas, whose residents during the flood period move to other areas of settlements that are not subject to flooding. In the hottest month, the water temperature in the river does not exceed +20 degrees.
White water is mainly used for industrial enterprises, for household and domestic needs. Industrial and domestic wastewater after treatment is discharged back into the river. The annual water intake at the river mouth is 950 m³/s. Most of the water resources are used for industrial processes.
Due to the large number of oil and chemical plants built along the river, the bottom silt has accumulated long-term deposits of harmful substances. The water in the river has a 4 class of pollution.
New treatment facilities are currently under construction. The number of newly built and modernized old ones is 44 objects. For these purposes, Russia plans to allocate more than 4 billion rubles to Tatarstan by next year.
In 2021, cleaning of the river bed, repair work at treatment facilities, hydraulic structures, strengthening of the coastline, washed out by a strong current of water, should begin.
National Park "Bashkiria" was founded in 1986 as a state nature conservation, environmental education and research institution. The territory of the park - natural complexes and objects of mountain forests of the Southern Urals, which have a special historical, ecological and aesthetic value.
The total area of the park is more than 82 thousand hectares, including 2.5 thousand hectares of the water area of the Nugush reservoir. The national park includes the southwestern spurs of the ancient Ural Mountains, the Yamantau, Kibiz, Utyamysh, Bash-Alatau ridges. It is located between the Belaya and Nugush rivers. The average height of the relief of the territory varies from 500 to 700 meters, the maximum point is 758 meters.
The natural park can boast of the amount of water resources included in its composition. Among them are the Belaya, Nugush, Irgizla rivers, the Yumaguzinskoe and Nugushskoe reservoirs. In addition, the park has a large number of streams and rivers belonging to the Volga water basin. Many of them became the creators of caves, natural bridges, karst lakes and formations that the national park is rich in.
The main waterway is the Belaya River - a mountain river, a tributary of the Volga, with a length (in the park) of more than 100 kilometers. Its right tributary, the Nugush River, is the second most important river in the national park. The total length of the river is 235 kilometers, 50 of which are part of the park.
Most of the national park is occupied by deciduous forests. However, here you can also find alder-bird cherry, pine and pine-birch forests, and relict spruce forests have been preserved along the banks of mountain rivers.
photo: official site of the Bashkiria National Park
In total, about 800 species of higher vascular plants grow on the territory of the national park, of which 55 are objects of state protection and are included in the Red Data Books of various ranks.
The fauna, for the most part, represents inhabitants typical of the South Urals: wolf, bear, fox, wild boar, elk, white hare and others. However, for some species, this territory is the border of their habitat, for example, for the Siberian roe deer, corsac, red nochia and others. Due to the large number of caves, 11 species of bats live here, 6 of which are rare and listed in the Red Book of the republic. A total of 12 species of mammals living in the park are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
photo: official site of the Bashkiria National Park
Also on the territory of the park there are especially valuable natural objects (the Sumgan abyss, the Kutuk tract, the Kuperlya karst bridge, "Bear Polyana") and archaeological sites.
In Karelia in the next two years, more than 20 campgrounds may appear on popular tourist routes along the main highways. This is a new type of tourist recreation for the republic, which attracts with a relatively low price, affordable logistics and proximity to places of interest.