Every small vessel, upon entering the water, must have on board the obligatory equipment to ensure the safety of navigation, approved by the State Inspectorate for Marine Engineering.
There must be a number of life jackets in the boat according to the number of people on board.
Extract from the Provisional Rules for the Classification and Technical Requirements for Pleasure and Other Vessels Supervised by the State Inspectorate for Small Vessels of the Russian Federation, approved by order of the Main Directorate of the GIMS of Russia dated June 28, 2001 No. 42.
6. ... ... ... The complete set of supplies for supervised vessels, in general, should correspond to the table. 6.. ... ... All ships, regardless of the navigation area, except for rowing boats (boat) rental stations, must have red flares, and ships operating in the coastal part of the seas and on large lakes should have additional parachute distress missiles.
6.. ... ... Individual life-saving appliances on board the vessel must be painted orange with the side number (name) of the vessel imprinted on them and comply with the requirements of the standards.
6. ... ... ... Rowing boats of boat rental stations located on non-navigable water bodies are allowed to have one lifebuoy.
Table of Supply Items for Supervised Vessels
6. ... ... ... All ships, regardless of class, must be equipped with a rope of appropriate length, caliber and material to ensure the safety of mooring and towing of ships in the navigation areas, and ships of 1-3 classes must have a life line of at least 16 meters in length
This is the final article in our trekking planning and preparation series. (The previous article can be viewed here: ). Like previous articles, it is aimed at novice tourists who independently organize their first hikes. Today we will talk about how to make a competent layout, prepare and pack food, and in conclusion we will give a couple of recipes on the road. Naturally, all the products that will be discussed can be bought in any more or less large supermarket, and everyone who has cooked their own food at least once will cope with the preparation. Let's go!
At the first stage, you need to decide on the basis of which concept you will make the layout and prepare food on the route. There are three main approaches, and we will analyze each of them in detail.
Group (general) layout. Actually, the classic and one of the most common options. It implies a common purchase and the same ration for the whole group. This option is convenient (or at least familiar) for large groups and logical for small companies of three to four people. In this case, the team appoints a caretaker, who draws up and agrees a "campaign menu" with the group, and then purchases and packs food with assistants. On the route, the caretaker distributes shifts or prepares himself with assistants (this is if you are very lucky and your caretaker loves to cook). One of the main advantages of the general layout is that everyone is used to this approach, everyone has always done this and considers this option to be optimal. Again, you have one set of dishes per group, burners and fuel are also the same for all. All of you eat together according to the established schedule. And everything here is simple, convenient and understandable, if all team members have the same taste habits. But everything becomes more complicated if, for example, a vegetarian falls into your group. In any case, the general layout implies compromises and the fact that everyone is ready to make them.
Small group assignment. It is also a layout for departments, tents, bundles, etc. The idea of such a layout came from mountaineering: during the ascent, the whole group is divided into ligaments - two or three. As a rule, a bunch lives in one tent and it is quite logical for them to cook and eat separately. This approach is fully justified in conditions of mountaineering and high-altitude ascents. Often having camped on the route, there is no way for everyone to get together and cook dinner - it may simply not be a place for this. Cramming everyone into one tent is also not an option. Collecting food from the tents, and then running around with a pot to carry food is still a pleasure, especially if the weather has turned bad. So, the essence of the idea is clear - meals are organized according to "groups-tents". Each tent prepares itself, it has its own layout, food, dishes. Burners and fuel are also their own. In our case, this option is convenient if you are going to go on a hike with several companies. For example, my wife and I live in Moscow and have been hiking together for over ten years. We have "got used to" each other for a long time, we have the same tastes and preferences (in any case, we have long since found out who does not like what). We have friends, they live in Sevastopol, they are also married and also go hiking together for more than ten years. They also have their own habits, tastes and preferences. When we are going to go together, it is easier for us to get together separately and come with our own products than to agree on what we eat and who buys what products. There are a number of advantages in the layout "in tents", it is always easier for two or three people to agree than a group of ten. Each department prepares what he likes and how he likes. If you are going from different cities, this is also convenient - you do not need to agree on who buys what, or someone alone will not need to carry food at all. Do not forget about the possible force majeure - if part of the group at the last moment refuses to participate in the hike, you will not have to repackage food and fuel (and the author did it a couple of times). On the route, if for some reason the team decides to split up, you will again not have to split the food.
Individually - personal layout. The essence of this approach is clear from the name - everyone makes their own "menu" and eats separately. This option has the same advantages as the small group layout. This approach is often resorted to by high-altitude climbers - at altitude, people's taste preferences can change dramatically, and the intolerance of some products, in terms of taste, sharply aggravates. In this case, the "boiling water" for the group can be common, or everyone prepares himself. Allergy sufferers or people with intolerance to any products or the method of their preparation often resort to this layout.
In general, you don't have to stick to one option, you can combine the two. A vegetarian, so as not to strain the rest of the group, can go on a personal layout, and the rest on a common one. The question here is how you agree.
Now it will be necessary to make a list of products and, in fact, dishes that can be prepared on the hike. With such a list in hand, it will be much easier for you to fit the layout to the trip schedule than to invent it on the go. Once you've put together your “grocery set” for a hike, you can use it on each subsequent vacation, supplementing it with a list of groceries and new dishes. Basically, you need to come up with at least three, and preferably five food options for breakfast, lunch and dinner, and then you can simply scroll through them every five days.
So what exactly can you eat on a hike? In general, everything is the same as what you eat at home. With minor changes in the cooking technology and components, all dishes familiar to us in everyday life can be repeated in field conditions. Tips on what specific foods to buy (as well as how to repackage and prepare them) will be given in the next section. We will now be sketching out the menu ideas.
Breakfast. Let's start with the classics. If you like cereals, then the issue with breakfast is solved for you - the choice of instant cereals is huge and available to everyone. If you, like the author, can only tolerate porridge for a couple of days a year, then continue. The first thing that comes to mind is cheese and sausage. A piece of cheese with a sausage and a crouton, that's great. Further. Alternatively, serve up a pate with croutons for breakfast - it also goes well. If you miss hot, you can make an omelet - you just need egg powder and a little milk powder.
I am often asked about the grocery layout for hiking. I do not pretend to be professional in this area, but decided to share my experience. Maybe it will be useful to someone. If you are interested in a layout for a water trip, or the one where you don't need to carry everything under your backpack, then this article is perhaps not for you, although you can still find something useful.
There is no universal solution for every hike and any company, so it is better to make a layout for each hike, taking into account the complexity of the route, the season (in winter and in cold weather you need more calories), the number of days you need to carry the whole food on my own (the fewer days, the more you can afford to take nishtyaks), and the tastes of the participants. I am also constantly experimenting, so the range of products is also changing little by little. But the basis is, of course, the same. Now I will write the basic principles using the example of the layout for the last year's hike in Altai.
First, you need to decide on the number of days and the number of brews and snacks for each day. And make a menu. For example, we usually cook only in the morning and in the evening, and in the afternoon we use dry rations so as not to waste time. But, if you are planning a day of rest, then you can plan a hot lunch. Sometimes I put 1-2 reserve brews (well, you never know what can happen that you have to delay?). Then you need to make a list of the products necessary for preparing the necessary dishes, write down how many grams (liters, pieces) this product will go for one meal per person, how many times this dish will be on the hike and for how many people it is designed for. After that, you can multiply everything and you will receive a list (and quantity) of products that you need to purchase and take on a hike. On average, 600 grams of dry food per person per day is considered the norm. This is just a figure to be guided by. If the hike is not difficult and the backpacks are not too heavy, then you can take more (within reasonable limits, because why carry too much?). If you need to save weight, then without much damage, the weight can easily be reduced to 500-520 grams per person per day, without having to starve.
Traditionally tourists cook milk porridge for breakfast. I often go with those people who do not like milk and sweet cereals. So, these cereals can be successfully replaced with ordinary savory cereals with carrots and spices. We cook buckwheat, rice, pasta is good for breakfast (long carbohydrates in the morning - that's it! You can do it with cheese, if the layout allows). You can also add here other cereals that you like: barley, wheat, corn, millet, semolina and others.
If you plan to go out very early and do not want to spend a lot of time on cooking, then you can take flakes for one or two times (I took oatmeal and buckwheat to Altai), which do not require cooking. For milk porridge, you will also need sugar, salt, milk powder, and you can also add dried fruits (dried apricots, raisins, etc.) there. By the way, before adding them to the porridge, it is best to pour them over with boiling water, but these are questions for specific recipes.
I'm not fond of cereals and instant food, because it seems to me that they are digested faster than regular cereals, and hunger after them comes earlier. Another way to speed up the preparation of breakfast is known, I think, to everyone - you just need to soak the cereal in the evening with warm water and by morning it will be almost ready.
In addition to cereal for breakfast, we drink tea or coffee with condensed milk and eat chocolate. Approximate alignment for one serving: 60 grams of cereals (or 100 grams of pasta), spices, dried herbs and carrots (or dried fruits in the case of milk porridge plus milk powder), tea or coffee, 25 grams of chocolate.
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