Kura-Adjaritskali 2016

Construction of ships

The lecture was delivered at the KBT MSU on February 11, 2010

The lecture is primarily devoted to the construction of the catamaran. And not just a catamaran as a two-gondola ship, but a catamaran designed for river rafting. The catamaran is one of the most common means of rafting, used for rafting across the entire spectrum of difficulty and regions.


Let's try to figure out a little what catamarans are. The most striking difference is the number of rowers, there are always an even number and no more than six, in some particularly sad cases there are eight. Generally speaking, catamarans with different numbers of rowers are different types of boats, as the behavior of rowers varies quite a bit. The second noticeable difference is the shape of the catamaran cylinders. They affect the behavior of the catamaran in the water flow the most. A less obvious difference is the design of the catamaran and the frame, the placement of the stops, and the places for tying the load. Finally, let's highlight the target difference between catamarans: they can be divided into sports and expeditionary ones.

Main characteristics of catamarans

The important but relative characteristics are length, width, volume and weight. They are relative mainly due to the fact that vessels of different sizes are recommended for different rivers. The question is, what parameters of the river do the first three characteristics of the vessel depend on? Answer: on the expense and category of complexity. These characteristics are relative, since, depending on the number of rowers, both ‘more’ and ‘fewer’ characteristics will differ. For example, the volume of 1200 liters for cat-2 is a lot, but for cat-4 it is very small.

Cylinder type

The simplest forms are cylindrical, having a constant diameter along the entire length and various shapes of tips - rounding, transom washers, cones, envelopes (corners like a pillow), the bottom one is usually "cut".

The most common type of balloon - "banana", has rounded ends with undercut, a balloon of variable length along the diameter with a maximum in the midship (middle) area, etc. the bow and stern are symmetrical. "Banana" asymmetrical - the maximum diameter is shifted towards the stern. "Banana" simplified - with a cylindrical insert in the middle, constant diameter, from 1/3 to 2/3 of the total length of the body.

A less common form is the "spindle", pointed nose, rounded or transom stern. A simplified version is a cylindrical insert of various lengths. "Double spindle" - with both sharp ends, both asymmetrical and simplified profile. "Spindle with a raised nose." In a normal one, the apex of the nose is located on the longitudinal axis of the balloon, - with a raised nose, the apex of the nose is raised upward from the longitudinal axis of the balloon.

Combined floats popularly referred to as "camel" are generally a bizarre mixture of all of the above, have a lowered deck (not all!), humps, including transformable, retractable, additional and various other features. But the list doesn't end there.

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Core Principle

The main advantage of rowing boats is the ability to develop a high positive speed. The maximum use of this property is the basic principle of passing any difficult sections. The higher the speed of the vessel, the easier it is to control it, the easier it is to enter the catch, traverse and cross the stream, and most importantly, as the speed of the vessel increases, the possibilities of passing powerful “barrels” increase, the “piercing” of which is probably the most difficult problem. So, passing the rapids on a rowing vessel is rowing on straight sections, turns, if necessary, entering and exiting the catch, rowing again, and in areas with the most powerful water, "barrels" and sinks, the crew concentrates their efforts and reaches maximum speed ...

Speed ​​up - turn - speed up - turn.


Stroke phases:

  • grabbing the paddle of water by the blade (start of the stroke)
  • steering (power part of the stroke when the boat receives acceleration due to the support of the paddle on the water),
  • blade coming out of the water (end of the stroke)
  • skidding the oar for the next stroke


  • Straight Rowing;
  • Reverse Rowing;

  • Use supports for hanging;
  • The more difficult the situation, the more frequent rowing should be (one stroke was not enough, 2-3 others should be done).

Elementary structures of water flow.

  • Stream (traverse, reverse).
  • Catch (entering the stream and entering the catch)
  • Shivers
  • Clamps
  • Shafts
  • Barrels
  • Plums
  • Blocks, combs, creases.

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The lecture was delivered at the KBT MSU on March 11, 2015

Flood rivers are characterized by a significant drop, narrowness and tortuosity of the channel, as well as a large number of obstacles of various types.


Rafting rivers are interesting because they have a large height difference, some up to 20 m per 1 km.

Examples: Yavan River, Linen River.

All rivers of this type most of the year are small, sluggish streams, tributaries of larger rivers. Only in spring, during several days, when there is intense snow melting, the river becomes full enough and interesting for rafting and training.

The tortuosity of the river

The older the river, the more it meanders (meanders).

The stream of water hits the uneven banks, the bottom and due to this, a swirling (turbulent) stream of water is created, consisting of jets flowing at different speeds and in different directions, which greatly complicates the control of the vessel.

The stream (streamline) is the fastest flowing part of the stream, which goes along the deepest part of the channel.

On flood rivers, the stream always goes under a high bank. If both banks are about the same height, then it can be tracked by a strip of foam, which almost continuously stretches downstream, wagging from one bank to the other. Accordingly, it is best to move along the stream closer to the middle of the river, which saves energy.

Hike Report

g. Moscow, u. Korneichuk 55-216


1. Trekking Reference

1. Host organization

The trip was organized by tourists from the Moscow State University Water Tourism Club, address Moscow, Vorobyovy Gory, State Museum of Moscow State University.

1. Venue

Georgia, b. Kura - region of Samtskhe-Javakheti, r Gubazeuli - region of Guria, r. Adjariskali - Autonomous Republic of Adjara

1. General route reference

Catamaran-2 Raftmaster Gosha (1 pc.) - Cat 2-2

Homemade catamaran-2 (1 pc.) - Cat 2-3

Catamaran-2 Belraft “Sozh” (1 pc.) - Cat 2-4

Catamaran-2 “Sterkh” (1 piece) - Cat 2-5

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