Kiviristi, Okhta threshold

Rapids in water tourism

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The Kem River flows through the north of Karelia. It originates in Lake Kuito near the Finnish border, crosses the republic from west to east and merges with the White Sea near the city of Kem. 22 kilometers from the mouth, near the village of Poduzheme, the Okhta River flows into it. She, in turn, is divided into Lower and Upper. The river is characterized by a restive nature and therefore is very popular with rafting enthusiasts.

The Okhta River flows

The birthplace of Okhta is Lake Kevyatozero in the White Sea region of Karelia. Its source is located near the abandoned village of Kevyatozero. The length of the river reaches 180 kilometers. The total height difference is 123 meters. The current speed is up to three kilometers per hour. Okhta is not just a river, but a whole water system, which is a chain of lakes connected by channels. On its way, the river crosses 15 lakes! The largest are Voronye, ​​Lezhevo and Yuliaozero.

In summer, the river is fed by rain, in winter - by snow. Ice appears in November and disappears in early May. The river flows far from settlements, so its banks are deserted. There is no human habitation here. All along there are only a few abandoned villages. Some houses can be used for overnight stays.

Okhta River on the map of Karelia

The so-called island of Spirits is located in Voronye Lake. There are no ghosts. But there are a lot of funny sculptures and wood crafts. Tourists have arranged something like an open-air museum of folk art on the island. Replenishment of the exposition began in the seventies of the XX century. Every year something new appears here.

Island of Spirits on Raven Lake

In the distant past, a glacier worked hard over the landscape. He left behind moraines - long strips and low ridges, consisting of small boulders and fragments of rock. Okhta has to overcome these rubble on its way. In such places, rapids and rifts are formed. This is death for traditional shipping, but a fortune for boating fans.

The rafting route along Okhta is considered one of the most picturesque in Karelia. The river is good in that the complexity of the rapids increases gradually from source to mouth. This allows both beginners and experienced athletes to choose suitable areas for rafting. Okhta is a kind of school for teaching the passage of rapids. The total length of the main rafting section reaches about 130 kilometers. It includes four large and several small lakes.

In total, there are four dozen rapids and shivers on the river - shallow water areas with stones sticking out above the water. At the same time, there are absolutely no impassable places. Once, Okhta was used for timber rafting. Several dams were built to regulate the flow in the channel. Now they are destroyed and passable quite easily. In general, the river belongs to the third category of complexity.

Water Hazard Classification

International and Russian classifications divide water obstacles into 6 categories: obstacles of the first category are considered the simplest, the sixth category - the most difficult to pass and life-threatening.

Difficulty is assigned based on the following factors:

Hiking How to properly overcome obstacles encountered on the route

On the route, a group of hikers on foot may, and almost certainly, encounter obstacles of all kinds. Therefore, one of the important qualities of tourists is the ability to successfully overcome obstacles. The extent to which the group will be able to realize this quality depends on its safety when passing the route and the successful completion of the journey within the time limits specified by the control time. On the way, tourists may encounter obstacles of various complexity. They will be discussed further.

When driving along low, wooded mountains or hills, the route is selected along gentle ridges. There are several reasons for this: it is easier to walk there, easier to navigate and more difficult to get lost, in contrast to moving along an overgrown intermountain. Going out to free areas of slopes overgrown with grass, meadows or talus in the process of movement, it is necessary to avoid concave landforms, which can be dangerous from the point of view of landslides and rockfalls. Driving on steep slopes requires mastering some simple mobility techniques.

Passing steep slopes. For confident movement on steep slopes, tourist shoes should have non-slip and, preferably, non-smooth, grooved soles. When going uphill, the leg should be placed on the entire foot. At the same time, it is useful, using any bulge of the relief, or a stone lying steadily on a slope, to try to maintain a horizontal position of the foot. When lifting, the toes of the feet must be spread apart, and the more, the steeper the slope. A long ascent is performed, moving in turn one or the other sideways to the slope. Moving along the grassy slope, the foot of the leg, which is located higher, is placed across the slope on the entire sole, while the foot of the other leg is turned toe down at a certain angle. Descent on steep slopes is performed on bent legs. Descent from not very steep slopes, if there is a trail, can be done by jogging. At the same time, throwing the legs forward, the body is thrown back a little. When descending by jog, the backpack should not be heavy over the shoulders.

Overcoming forest thickets, debris. Movement through forest thickets, high and hard grass cover or dense bushes requires attention and repetition of the movements of the one in front from each participant of the hike. It is necessary to hold on to the branches or stems that are set aside so that they do not hit a comrade from behind. To protect against injury from branches, stems or twigs, the tourist's clothing should be with long sleeves. In order to protect the face and eyes, one hand is kept in front of you at all times. To overcome fallen trees, blockages, you must carefully step over them and in no case jump over. It is advisable not to step on them due to the fact that they may be covered with slippery mold. When moving in the thickets, it is advisable to remove all protruding objects that protrude beyond the backpack and clothes of the tourist, since they will cling to everything.

Overcoming wetlands. Usually the wetlands of the route pass along the slopes. In their absence, the marshland is crossed by tourists, stepping over or jumping, one after another from hummock to hummock. Everyone should have a pole in their hands for ease of movement, self-belay and depth measurement. When overcoming the swells, the interval between people should be increased, but within the reach of the sixth nearby walking tourist.

Overcoming water barriers. A water hazard can be overcome in several ways. Crossing bridges and treasures. Overcoming water obstacles in regular walking trips is usually done over existing bridges and treasures. There is some difficulty in crossing the luggage, which have no railings and are unstable. In this case, one of the experienced members of the group is transported first for verification. After that, he insures other tourists when crossing with a pole or hand. The greatest difficulty is crossing a suspended log that swings horizontally. In this case, after performing several intense squats, horizontal vibrations can most often be damped or transferred to the vertical plane. Such fluctuations already represent less inconvenience for the crossing of tourists. In some cases, to facilitate movement next to the luggage at shoulder level, a rope railing is pulled or a pole is held.

Porog, rapids - a rocky or rocky area in the bed of a watercourse (river or stream) with an increased flow rate and a relatively large drop in water level marks, formed as a result of step erosion of the channel, if its material is heterogeneous.

Contents

Industrial use [edit]

Rapids complicate navigation and rafting, necessitate the construction of bypass canals. Hydroelectric power plants are sometimes built on rivers with rapids (for example, the Dnieper HPP on the rapids of the Dnieper near the city of Zaporozhye, the Volkhovskaya HPP on the rapids of the Volkhov).

Water tourism [edit]

In water tourism, rapids are one of the main elements that determine the complexity of the route. The easiest rapids to pass can be found already on the routes of the 2nd category of difficulty.

If a threshold consists of several sequentially located sinks, the distance between which does not exceed the length of the vessel, then such a threshold is called single-stage; if between sinks the vessel can freely maneuver and pass from one coast to another, then the threshold is called multistage.

If, as a result of preliminary inspection of the threshold, there are doubts about the success of its passage, then, as a rule, ships are carried out or carried along the coast.

Threshold elements [edit]

The characteristic elements of the threshold are weirs, which, depending on the angle of water fall - more or less than 45 ° - are subdivided respectively into waterfalls, slopes and simply plums.

The following threshold elements are also distinguished:

  • Barrel
  • Shaft
  • Barrel
  • Stone
  • Clamp
  • Drain
  • Stream
  • Catch
  • Counterflow

Significant stretches are often formed in front of the rapids from damming the river with steps of the rapids.

Porog, rapids - a rocky or rocky area in the bed of a watercourse (river or stream) with an increased flow rate and a relatively large drop in water level marks, formed as a result of step erosion of the channel, if its material is heterogeneous.

Contents

Industrial use [edit]

Rapids complicate navigation and rafting, necessitate the construction of bypass canals. Hydroelectric power plants are sometimes built on rivers with rapids (for example, the Dnieper HPP on the rapids of the Dnieper near the city of Zaporozhye, the Volkhovskaya HPP on the rapids of the Volkhov).

Water tourism [edit]

In water tourism, rapids are one of the main elements that determine the complexity of the route. The easiest rapids to pass can be found already on the routes of the 2nd category of difficulty.

If a threshold consists of several sequentially located sinks, the distance between which does not exceed the length of the vessel, then such a threshold is called single-stage; if between sinks the vessel can freely maneuver and pass from one coast to another, then the threshold is called multistage.

If, as a result of preliminary inspection of the threshold, there are doubts about the success of its passage, then, as a rule, ships are carried out or carried along the coast.

Threshold elements [edit]

The characteristic elements of the threshold are weirs, which, depending on the angle of water fall - more or less than 45 ° - are subdivided respectively into waterfalls, slopes and simply plums.

Porog, rapids - a rocky or rocky area in the bed of a watercourse (river or stream) with an increased flow rate and a relatively large drop in water level marks, formed as a result of step erosion of the channel, if its material is heterogeneous.

Contents

Industrial use [edit]

Rapids complicate navigation and rafting, necessitate the construction of bypass canals. Hydroelectric power plants are sometimes built on rivers with rapids (for example, the Dnieper HPP on the rapids of the Dnieper near the city of Zaporozhye, the Volkhovskaya HPP on the rapids of the Volkhov).

Water tourism [edit]

In water tourism, rapids are one of the main elements that determine the complexity of the route. The easiest rapids to pass can be found already on the routes of the 2nd category of difficulty.

If a threshold consists of several sequentially located sinks, the distance between which does not exceed the length of the vessel, then such a threshold is called single-stage; if between sinks the vessel can freely maneuver and pass from one coast to another, then the threshold is called multistage.

If, as a result of preliminary inspection of the threshold, there are doubts about the success of its passage, then, as a rule, ships are carried out or carried along the coast.

Threshold elements [edit]

The characteristic elements of the threshold are weirs, which, depending on the angle of water fall - more or less than 45 ° - are subdivided respectively into waterfalls, slopes and simply plums.

The following threshold elements are also distinguished:

  • Barrel
  • Shaft
  • Roll
  • Stone
  • Clamp
  • Drain
  • Stream
  • Catch
  • Counterflow

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