Annotation This article provides an assessment of the tourist and recreational potential, promising investment projects in the field of tourism in the Western Arctic region of Russia. The main emphasis in the work is made on the study of the problems of the development of the tourism industry in the Tersky district of the Murmansk region, Solovki, Murmansk. The most promising types of tourism have been identified, among which the leading role is assigned to the Arctic sea tourism.
Keywords: Murmansk region, polar sea tourism, Solovki, high-latitude archipelagos, cruise route
The Murmansk region, washed by two seas at once, has the longest coastal strip in Russia. Even the cold North Sea offers unique opportunities for relaxation and travel. In 2009, the Murmansk region was visited by 240 thousand tourists, of which 32 thousand were foreign tourists. A fundamental step in the modernization of the tourism sector of the regional economy will be the creation of three tourist and recreational territories (TRT) of regional significance: "Russian Lapland", "Pechengskaya", "Terskaya", which will increase the tourist flow by 2013 to 355 thousand people per year , which will entail an increase in vacancies in tourism by 11 percent and in the service sector - by 22 percent . In such conditions, many related activities will begin to develop - souvenir trade, transport services, guest houses. This, in turn, will provide additional opportunities for the development of small and medium-sized businesses. Representatives of environmental organizations of the Murmansk region propose to organize national natural parks in the region: "Khibiny", "Kutsa", the ethno-natural park "Lovozero tundra".
At present, polar sea tourism is actively expanding its boundaries. In 2009. the total passenger traffic of sea cruises in the Arctic was 1,300,000 people. At the same time, the share of the Russian sector of the Arctic accounted for no more than 0.1% of the passenger traffic, which is served by foreign cruise companies . At present, the expeditionary experience and financial power of foreign cruise companies practically exclude the possibility for Russian companies to independently organize and sell cruises in the Russian Arctic on the world market. The first Russian legal entity organizing expeditionary cruises in the Arctic is the Moscow company "Special Travel Club", which organized its own cruise to Franz Josef Land in the summer of 2010 on the Kapitan Dranitsyn diesel icebreaker. In the future, the company plans to organize Arctic cruises from Murmansk and Arkhangelsk.
So, for example, in the summer of 2011 a new tourist voyage is planned on the motor ship "Akademik Shokalsky" from Murmansk to Arkhangelsk along the White and Barents Seas with a visit to Solovki.
Russian-English Moscow company Poseidon Expeditions is a tour operator of icebreaking cruises to the North Pole. An Arctic cruise to the North Pole is an exclusive Russian tourist product. Russia is the only country in the world that brings tourists to the top of the planet by sea. In the summer season of 2010, the youngest and most powerful nuclear-powered ship in the world "50 Years of Victory" made 3 cruise flights to the top of the planet. The cost of a two-week cruise is from 16 to 25 thousand euros, from 115 to 130 tourists are sent in one flight. It is noteworthy that among the foreign tourists of the second cruise in 2010 there were 8 Russians, and on the last flight, all 115 passengers were citizens of Japan . Flights to the North Pole are carried out from Murmansk through Spitsbergen or through Franz Josef Land with a call to Novaya Zemlya with a look at bird colonies and observation of Arctic animals on Rubini Rock, in Tikhaya Bay, on the Champa and Rudolf Islands.
In the region of the High-latitude archipelagoes of the Barents Sea, three promising unique territories should be distinguished: Svalbard (the Russian villages of Barentsburg and Pyramida), the Russian Arctic National Park and the Barneo Arctic base. The creation of the Russian Arctic National Park, established in 2009, has been postponed to 2011. The park will include the northern part of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago, the Franz Josef Land nature reserve and Victoria Island. The total area of the park will be 8.4 million a, of which 6.1 million are territorial waters . Science and tourism will be the main focus of the park. The emergence of a national park in the Arctic latitudes will strengthen Russia's presence in this region. In the Russian settlements of Spitsbergen, in our opinion, it is necessary to focus on those types of tourism in which they have advantages over Longyearbyen, for example, it is ski and health tourism (mineral water intake). Serious reconstruction of infrastructure facilities is required, re-profiling of existing buildings for the needs of science and tourism.
The Barents Sea coast of the Kola Peninsula also has the necessary resources for the development of coastal sea tourism. Here, on the Rybachiy Peninsula, is the northernmost point of the European mainland of Russia - Cape German (Russian North Cape). The main tour operator specializing in boat trips and diving in the Barents Sea is Pilgrim, which organizes tours on the Katarina yacht along the Kola Bay, to Kildin Island, the German and Rybachy peninsulas.
Military-historical tourism and sea fishing are also promising here.
Murmansk since the 1990s. develops as a center of international sea tourism, the starting point of cruises on the northern seas. Cruise ships have visited Murmansk over the past 12 years. The Murmansk tour operator company "Nordmorservice Travel" accepts and services in the commercial and fishing port during one summer season from 3 to 6 cruise liners with the number of foreign tourists on board from 160 to 1000. At the same time, it could potentially attract up to 200 thousand cruise tourists per year [one]. This requires a radical reconstruction of the Murmansk port passenger berth complex: dredging and shore protection works, lengthening of the main pier, creation of a checkpoint, reconstruction and expansion of the sea terminal. For the 100th anniversary of Murmansk (2016), the idea of building a sea facade is proposed, which involves the creation of a recreational, tourist, cultural zone in the area of the sea station. The marine façade is a complex that will include a berth for cruise liners, an embankment, a parking lot for floating museums - the nuclear icebreaker Lenin and the submarine K-3 .
Order of the Government of the Russian Federation N 2129-r dated 09.20.2019 - 3. Development of certain types of tourism: Children's, Cultural and educational, Ski, Cruise, Ecological, Business tourism
With the hot summer season approaching, talk about tourism and the region's extraordinary prospects has reignited.