Ganopolsky V


Part VІІ System of providing tourist training

Head of Tourism Safety

Ensuring the safety of participants in tourist trips is the most important task in the complex of measures for organizing, preparing and conducting a trip, and accident prevention rightfully occupies a leading position among the main sections of tourism. The main guiding documents on amateur tourism are aimed at ensuring safety, and above all - "Rules for organizing and conducting amateur tourist trips and travels on the territory of the USSR".

In sports tourism, the solution of educational, upbringing, sports and health-improving tasks, the effectiveness of which is largely determined by the effectiveness of preparing a group for a hike, is primarily aimed at ensuring the safety of tourists. Safety on the route is ensured in the preparatory period by all activities included in the network schedule (see Fig. 18). In other words, both the preparation of the participants (physical, technical, psychological, tactical, special), and the route work of the group (all aspects of which, of course, require that the experience and preparedness of the participants correspond to the conditions of the area, the nature of the route, the calendar of the campaign), and a set of activities for organization and material and technical support of the campaign (financing corresponding to the conditions of its conduct, equipment, clothing, footwear, food, medicines) - all this is a single complex to ensure the success of the campaign and the safety of its participants.

The value of the real experience of a tourist group, its physical, technical, tactical, psychological preparedness for the passage of a specific route (and in a specific classification and geographical area) in ensuring the safety of the participants in the campaign is well known. As a matter of fact, all route work is primarily reduced to solving one of the fundamental components of tourist safety, namely, to its classification support. However, there are still many shortcomings and imperfections in the work on the prevention of injuries and accidents. This question is perhaps the most acute of all the problematic issues of sports tourism.

Analysis of accidents in tourism allows the following to classify the main factors, objective and subjective, determining the causes of their occurrence.

The immediate causes of accidents can be:

- rock falls, snow cornices, ice; avalanches; - mudflows; - cracks in glaciers; - rapid flow of mountain rivers, rapids, rifts, ridges, rubble, eddies, river holes, swamps; - low air temperature, wind, solar radiation, precipitation, lightning; - rarefaction of air at high altitudes; - darkness, lack of visibility; - poisonous animals and plants.

The immediate causes of accidents caused by natural factors are dangerous, first of all, with the wrong actions of the participants themselves. These actions include:

- one of the tourists throwing stones on those located below the slope; - cutting snow at the traverse of the slope, causing an avalanche; - a long stay at high altitudes (mountain sickness) and movement in a high-mountainous area on snowy slopes without safety glasses (eye burn - "snow blindness"); - movement on closed glaciers without insurance (falling into a crevasse); - movement in conditions of poor visibility without maintaining small intervals; - choice of a place for training sessions (and competitions) on a previously unprepared area, on an area with steep slopes, on a river with too strong a current, in an avalanche and rockfall zone; - the use of substandard (defective) equipment: old ropes, ice axes with a cracked shaft, boats with fragile skin; - lack of reliable, properly organized insurance when crossing mountain rivers, overturning of a boat, an influx of a raft on a stone; - explosion of primus, overturning of dishes with hot food, excessively long exposure to the sun (burns); - eating poor quality products or poisonous plants (poisoning).

The reasons contributing to the occurrence of an accident are divided into three groups.

Parachuting is an extreme discipline, associated with increased danger to health and life. Before taking off and jumping with a parachute, a person will be asked to sign a paper on the voluntary nature of the jump and the absence of claims against the organizers in case of any trouble. And this is not an easy formality.

Accident Probability

Information on deaths associated with parachuting is not public. In the public domain, you can find data for the period 1998-2005, published by the Russian Federal Directorate of Aerospace Search and Rescue. According to the statistics of this department, over 7 years in Russia 91 deaths were recorded as a result of an unsuccessful parachute jump. Which averages 13 people per year.

Is this a lot or a little?

If we talk about the place of fatal parachute incidents in the structure of total mortality from external causes (about 200,000 cases annually), then they occupy the very last - with a share of 0.007%.

Table 1. Structure of mortality from external causes (100% - all fatalities)

Cause of death Share in total mortality from external causes,% Murders16.5 RTA10 Fire5 Parachute jumps0,007

About 40 thousand jumps are made in Russia every year. Of which:

  • fatal outcome - 0.03% - 3 out of 10,000 people;
  • trauma (fractures, bruises, concussions) - about 0.1% - 1 out of 1000 people.

Considering that the similar mortality rate in fires is 6.7%, then the probability of dying when making a parachute jump is 233 times less than from fire.

Examples of real accidents

Below are the cases of real incidents that occurred while jumping by experienced skydivers.

  • 2 parachutists were close to each other during the descent, they made a collision at an altitude of 60 m, there was a partial extinguishing of the domes, an increase in the landing speed. The result is fractures. In other similar cases - injuries incompatible with life.
  • Incorrect deployment of the main parachute as a result of incorrect stowage. The jumper tried to rectify the situation, but nothing came of it. The reserve is open at an altitude below 100 m. It landed on a partially filled vault dome and several sections of the main dome. The result is a fracture of the hip and ribs.
  • The parachutist made a dangerous 180 ° turn at an altitude of 30 m with a wind of 10 m/s. The result is broken legs and a concussion. In other similar cases - injuries incompatible with life.
  • Landing on the roof of the building with extinguishing the dome, then dragging the parachutist and falling to the ground. The result is severe injuries.
  • Landing on a bump: one foot on a bump. The result is an ankle fracture.
  • Loss of consciousness by a person during descent. The landing took place in an uncontrolled mode. The result is the death of the parachutist.

Swimming in water bodies on inflatable boats, kayaks and catamarans has already become commonplace not only for water tourists, but also for hunters and fishermen. With all the simplicity of managing these boats, there are still some nuances, the observance of which will not only make the passage of your route easier, but also safer.

General rules for water travel

In a water trip, as in any other, you need to plan a hiking day regimen. Of course, when planning a hiking day, you need to take into account the boats used for the trip, weather conditions and, of course, the complexity of the route itself.

Available cargo (backpacks, bags, etc.) must be securely fastened to the boat with ropes (photo 1). A securely secured cargo will take up less space, and will also not move along the watercraft while passing through difficult sections of the reservoir (for example, rapids on the river), which in turn will exclude the possibility of losing the cargo.

In the case when it rains or the route passes along a section of the river with rapids, where the probability of water ingress on the floating craft is high, the cargo must be placed in special waterproof bags, which have recently begun to appear on sale, or although would be covered with polyethylene from above (photo 2), otherwise the entire load will get wet and drying in rainy weather will be problematic. Travelers themselves need to wear waterproof things and wading boots.

Photo 2. Protection of things (cargo) with polyethylene.

Also, if the rain caught you in the morning, when the camp has not yet begun to "turn off", then it is advisable to wait out the rain and not get ready for the trip, especially when you have enough time. Those who are caught in the rain directly during the rafting (on the route), then it must be remembered that you need to look for a parking place earlier than in good weather, as it will take more time (preparing firewood, lighting a fire and cooking in a rainy the weather is very problematic).

In the event of a strong headwind, the movement of floating craft is also hampered by the large windage created, so it is important to remember that the strong wind in the morning and during the day abruptly dies down in the evening. In this regard, the movement can be increased precisely in the evening hours, in this case, the mileage can be covered more, and you will get tired less, which is also very important.

In addition, rafting in the dark should be completely excluded, as it is very dangerous, especially on taiga rivers. For example, on taiga rivers there are a lot of rubble and driftwood, which you will definitely not see in the dark, in addition, in the shallow waters of the rivers, anything can lie, including sharp metal objects (structures of old bridges, metal rubbish, etc.). It is also not uncommon on rivers to have low hanging wires, which could be torn off by a strong gust of wind and in a normal sitting position they come into contact with the body in the neck area; in the daytime, noticing such an obstacle, you just need to bend forward or backward.

The same rule should be followed when bright sunlight shines in the eyes and also limits visibility. In the dark and with the sun shining directly into your eyes, in no case should you pass dangerous sections of the river: rapids, "dry rapids", rifts, etc. The passage of dangerous areas (obstacles) must be postponed to a more suitable time of day.

As a rule, dangerous sections in a water voyage are passed in turn if there are two or more floating craft. A watercraft with the most experienced crew should always pass through dangerous areas first. For the first watercraft, if possible, without moving far from the coast, so that you can always dock, there are other watercraft. In case of a sign of danger, the team of the sailing craft in front disembarks and makes reconnaissance of the further route from the shore.

Photo 3. Sharp stones near the shore.

Inspection of dangerous areas consists in determining its nature, in choosing the method and order of movement of the group through the existing obstacle. For better exploration of the river's water flow, it is also possible to drop control buoys (sticks, pieces of logs, pieces of foam, empty plastic containers) into the water at short intervals. This will allow you to accurately determine the movement of the water flow (for example, so that during the rafting it does not "throw out" on the boulders in the river).

Igor Dyatlov's tourist group is not left alone. An endless stream of articles about the "mystical secret", a lot of TV shows, a horror movie, and now here is a TV series. And everyone who takes up the plot talks about some "secret documents", promising to "reveal the secret."

The tent of the Dyatlov group, partially excavated from the snow. To the left of the tent are the search engines. Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Not unique

None of those chasing sensations cares about the fact that no secret has actually existed for a long time. For those who are keen on ski tourism, it was not there almost from the very beginning: all the answers to the questions appeared during the search work.

The main thing is that the tragedy of the Dyatlov group is not unique. And before that, as such emergencies are called in the language of tourists, accidents, and after it there were cases that, if desired, could be declared "mysterious and mystical."

But there were no volunteers, so the investigations proceeded calmly and routinely.

The death of Mikhail Koren's group: answers in the diary

In March 1971, two groups of tourists from the BSSR went on a ski trip to the Sayan Mountains (Siberia). The route, according to the accepted classification, was assessed according to the 5th category of difficulty: only experienced athletes received admission to such trips. Mikhail Koren's group, in addition to him, included Fyodor Gimein, Alexander Fabrisenko, Igor Korneev, Vladimir Skakun, Anna Nekhaeva, Aron Krupp, Alexander Nosko, Vadim Kazarin.

Koren's group reached the first pass on the route by reindeer sleds, after which the tourists continued skiing. True, sometimes I had to carry them on myself, since there was little snow that season. However, then heavy snowfalls began.

By April 10, Koren's group did not reach the checkpoint, after which the search began. Military helicopter pilots noticed a tent knocked down by the wind at the Tofalarsky Klyuch pass. The rescue teams that arrived were limited in their actions due to the high avalanche hazard. Searches were conducted in those areas that could be approached.

Portal about mountaineering, rock climbing, mountain tourism

The biggest disaster occurred on November 11, 2000, when 155 people died in the Kaprun resort as a result of a cable car fire. The cause of the fire was a malfunction in the wiring of the car. The fire started at the moment when the funicular was in the tunnel. Due to the strong thrust, the fire broke out instantly and only 12 people were able to escape.

The following is the statistics of the most notorious accidents that have occurred at the ski resorts of the world:

On January 29, 1983, an oil drilling vessel collided with a cable car in Singapore. 7 passengers were killed.

In Sölden, Austria, on September 5, 2005, a concrete block weighing 750 kilograms fell onto a cable car in a cargo helicopter flying by. 9 tourists from Germany were killed.

On August 26, 1962, French pilot Bernard Ziegler in an F-84F fighter cut the cable car cable at the Vallee Blanche resort in France. The accident killed 6 people. Surprisingly, Ziegler received no punishment. He later became a test pilot and rose to the rank of senior vice president of Airbus.

Almost 40 years later, the same story happened in Italy. On February 3, 1998, a US Marine fighter jet cut an elevator cable at the Cavalese resort. 20 people were killed. Captain Richard Ashby was put on trial but found not guilty due to lack of evidence. Immediately after the accident, the pilot destroyed the video of the flight. Ashby was sentenced to 4 and a half months in prison and fired from the Marines.

But this is not yet the worst incident in Italy. On March 9, 1976, 42 people died due to a cable break in the town of Cermis. The locals call this incident "Massacre in Kermish".

Fatalities and injuries

In just five cable car accidents, only one person survived from all the victims. In another five accidents, no one died.


The most distressing resort is the Italian Cavalese. There have been two major disasters. In addition to the accident with the fighter plane, a volcanic eruption occurred at this small resort, during which people who were on the lift were killed.

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