Classification of small vessels

Classification of small vessels

Sailing is a competition where participants compete against each other in a race on specially equipped boats. This type of competition is also called "yachting".

The first official international union of sailing professionals was founded in 1907. At the moment, the organization has 115 national federations, which include athletes from all over the world. The most popular type of competition known to people far from sailing is the regatta.

This is the name of the race, usually traditional, which consists of several competitions for boats of different classes. Regattas have their own traditions. This is due to the fact that many races have been going on for more than a dozen years.

The most popular regattas in the world:

  • Baltic. It has been held since 1946. The first start was given in Leningrad.
  • Vendee Globe is the only round-the-world regatta with no intermediate stops.
  • Volvo Ocean Race - round the world race. Only Volvo Ocean class yachts are allowed to participate. It has been held since 1973. Until 2006, the race was organized every 4 years. But due to the increased spectator, and later sponsorship, interest, the period between competitions was reduced to 3 years.
  • Fastnet - international competition. The frequency is once every 2 years. The route remains unchanged: Isle of Wight - Plymouth, with calls to the ports of Lands End, Southern Ireland, Isle of Scilly. The competitions have been held since 1925. The first race consisted of only seven participants, of whom only four made it to the finish line. 347 crews competed in the last regatta - an absolute record.
  • America's Cup. It is the oldest competition in the world that has survived to this day. The starting swim dates back to 1857. The race got its name in honor of the very first winner - the yacht "America". In total, the regatta has 35 draws (the last one is scheduled for 2017). The small number of competitions is associated with a twenty-year break that happened after the end of the Second World War.

What yachts are there

Each sporting event has its own requirements for the design features of sailboats. In total, there are seven criteria (types) of yachts, according to which the organizers decide whether to put the crew on a particular race.

  • Monotype. This is the criterion according to which the boat must comply with the regulated overall dimensions and its design must meet the accepted standards.
  • Maxi-yachts are a class of competitions where athletes whose boat is at least 30 meters in length are accepted.
  • Measurement formula. Here, several parameters are taken into account - length, displacement, sail area - according to which the crew is allowed to participate. The boat must meet each set parameter.
  • Cruisers and sailing dinghies. Only boats of the corresponding design take part. Sometimes the competition is divided into heats of cruisers and sailing dinghies separately.
  • Race of monohull yachts.
  • Swimming of catamarans.
  • Trimaran competition.

Crew composition

It is logical that speed is the main guarantee of victory in races. Therefore, it is important that during the competition there is nothing outsider on the boat - pragmatism, elevated to an absolute. They take on board only what can really come in handy during the swim. The same applies to people. All athletes must mind their own business. Each situation is brought to automatism.

Sailing features

A sports catamaran is not just an active recreation tool. This is national pride and history. An unusual floating craft, which is capable of the most complex cascades, the fastest of the ships in its weight, arose on the basis of amateur water tourism in the USSR.

Hiking and mountaineering remained the leaders for a long time: the mountains breathed with heroism and romance, and the pawn did not require special technical skills and expensive equipment. But the desire to conquer the white water of mountain rivers contributed to the development of new ships.

The kayak was first

The first floating craft created directly for water trips was a sports kayak. Before her, there was simply nothing to walk on difficult water, and rafting on homemade rafts was considered the lot of fishermen and desperate enthusiasts, boyish fun.

One of the first sports kayaks

The idea of ​​the design was borrowed from the peoples of the north, modernized taking into account the needs of tourists, and since the 60s of the 20th century, the latter began to actively master kayak rafting.

The frame ship opened up incredible opportunities for Soviet water tourists; in the vastness of the Soviet Union, in addition to calm forest streams, there were also very complex mountain streams that were of considerable sporting interest.

1974, amateur water tourists

Creation of the first sport catamaran

Soviet water tourists experimented with homemade equipment and gained experience. The most desperate attempts were made to go kayaking high-grade routes, but such a vessel could not conquer them.

So, in 1977, the first inflatable sports catamaran, designed by Sergei Papush, appeared.

Together with a group of water workers, he was preparing for a canoe trip to the river with the maximum level of difficulty - the Altai Bashkaus. Even for modern professional extreme sportsmen with first-class equipment, it is a dangerous test. What can we say about the kayak group. However, young athletes had little choice: take what they have, or come up with something of their own.

Sailing has its own distinctive features: the types of boats, the composition of the crew and others, which determines the participation in the regatta - the main competition of yachtsmen

Water transport includes many watercraft that differ in design and technical characteristics. There are large-tonnage ships, luxury yachts, sports boats, and small inflatable boats. But it is impossible to develop rules of navigation for each type of transport, therefore, general terms are used in the legislation, and one of the most well-known concepts is small boats. We will deal with this legal definition today: we will find out which vessels are small-sized in the Russian Federation, and how, in fact, this category of transport differs. So, the article provides the definition and classification of small vessels, their navigation times and navigation areas, and also briefly discusses the main legal nuances - registration and obtaining rights to a boat in the State Inspectorate for Information and Communication.

Which vessels are considered small and to whom they are subordinate

From time immemorial, a ship was considered any engineering structure capable of staying afloat and carrying passengers or cargo. Therefore, ships are a banal raft, a cargo barge, and a huge passenger liner. But in order to somehow distinguish between these types of transport, water inspections have introduced such a concept as small vessels. Let's figure out what it hides behind itself.

So, for 2020, a small-size vessel is defined in the Russian Federation as follows:

A small vessel is any vessel whose overall hull length does not exceed 20 meters, and the carrying capacity and cockpit space allow no more than 12 people to be accommodated on board.

Thus, the overwhelming majority of water transport used for private purposes falls under the above criteria. For example, boats and boats for recreational fishing or hunting, boats for boating and sports, watercraft used for crossings and for household needs.

In general, the category of "small vessels" is incredibly extensive, and all these vessels are legally under the supervision of the State Inspectorate of Small Vessels (GIMS). The service was established in 1984 and during its activity was subordinate to various departments of the USSR and Russia, until in 2004 it was finally transferred to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation. To date, the competence of the State Inspectorate for Small Vessels includes issues of classification of floating craft, compliance with safety and rules of navigation; issuance of navigational licenses, keeping general records of ships, as well as supervision over their proper technical condition.

In addition, we note that many users are wondering if a small craft is a vehicle. To answer, let us again turn to the definition: "A vehicle is a vehicle for the movement of passengers and/or cargo." Since each watercraft, in fact, is intended to perform these functions, then any small vessel is a vehicle without the slightest doubt.

General arrangement of small motor boat

The main components of a small motor vessel (for example, an amateur-built boat) are:

Hull [1] - The main part of the vessel, which includes the kit and the hull. The set consists of longitudinal and transverse ties, which serve as the basis for the sheathing. The front part of the hull is called the tank (tank), the middle part is called the quarterdecks (quarterdecks), the stern part is called the yute (yut).

Today, dozens of types of small boats have been developed, which are used in sports (water skiing, rowing, sailing), to ensure national economic purposes and are used for general needs. To determine the performance and the true mission of the vessel, the types should be clearly defined based on design and operational criteria.

Small craft classification

The family of small boats is very diverse, therefore the classification below does not claim to be complete and complete

  • By appointment:
    • transport vessels (for the carriage of goods and passengers);
    • sports (for sports purposes and training);
    • special (for special work on water).
  • According to the mode of movement:
    • displacement (vessels that are kept afloat due to the "Archimedean force");
    • planing (vessels , in which, when moving, due to the special shape of the bottom, a hydrodynamic force arises, causing a significant rise of the vessel and sliding it along the surface of the water);
    • on hydrofoils (vessels in which, when moving due to the aerodynamic lifting force of the underwater wings, the hull of the vessel comes out of the water);
    • on an air cushion (vessels in which the hull is supported above the surface by forcing air under the base of the bottom chamber).
  • By the type of mover:
    • oars;
    • sailing;
    • wheeled;
    • screw;
    • water jet;
    • jet.
  • By body material:
    • wooden;
    • metal;
    • fiberglass;
    • rubber fabric;
    • composite;
    • reinforced concrete;
    • from other materials.
  • By design of the body set:
    • with longitudinal set;
    • with cross set;
    • with mixed set ;
    • setless.
  • By engine type:
    • with stationary engine;
    • with outboard engine.
  • Along the contours of the hull:
    • flat-bottomed;
    • round-bilge (round-bilge);
    • sharp-cheeked (sharpi);
    • redited ;
    • unrestricted ;
    • mixed.
  • By the number of hulls:
    • single-hull;
    • multi-hull (catamarans, trimarans, multi-point, skis, sledges, etc.).

Main types of small craft

Small boats are self-propelled and non-self-propelled vessels:

  • jet skis (jet skis);
  • motor boats;
  • seaworthy motor boats (bots);
  • boats;
  • boats;
  • yachts;
  • rowing boats;
  • kayaks;
  • inflatable boats and catamarans ;
  • sailing ships.

In the legislation of the Russian Federation

Registration and supervision of small vessels is carried out by the State Small Vessels Inspectorate of the Ministry of Emergencies of Russia.

Prior to 2017, upon registration, the vessel was assigned registration numbers of the form “R 00-00 AA” for individuals, “RAA 00-00” for legal entities and “00-00 AA” for rowing and non-self-propelled vessels; АА - two-letter registration region code using the Cyrillic alphabet.

Water transport includes many watercraft that differ in design and technical characteristics. There are large-tonnage ships, luxury yachts, sports boats, and small inflatable boats. But it is impossible to develop rules of navigation for each type of transport, therefore, general terms are used in the legislation, and one of the most well-known concepts is small boats. We will deal with this legal definition today: we will find out which vessels are small-sized in the Russian Federation, and how, in fact, this category of transport differs. So, the article provides the definition and classification of small vessels, their navigation times and navigation areas, and also briefly discusses the main legal nuances - registration and obtaining rights to a boat in the State Inspectorate for Information and Communication.

Which vessels are considered small and to whom they are subordinate

From time immemorial, a ship was considered any engineering structure capable of staying afloat and carrying passengers or cargo. Therefore, ships are a banal raft, a cargo barge, and a huge passenger liner. But in order to somehow distinguish between these types of transport, water inspections have introduced such a concept as small vessels. Let's figure out what it hides behind itself.

So, for 2020, a small-size vessel is defined in the Russian Federation as follows:

A small vessel is any vessel whose overall hull length does not exceed 20 meters, and the carrying capacity and cockpit space allow no more than 12 people to be accommodated on board.

Thus, the overwhelming majority of water transport used for private purposes falls under the above criteria. For example, boats and boats for recreational fishing or hunting, boats for boating and sports, watercraft used for crossings and for household needs.

In general, the category of "small vessels" is incredibly extensive, and all these vessels are legally under the supervision of the State Inspectorate of Small Vessels (GIMS). The service was established in 1984 and during its activity was subordinate to various departments of the USSR and Russia, until in 2004 it was finally transferred to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation. To date, the competence of the State Inspectorate for Small Vessels includes issues of classification of floating craft, compliance with safety and rules of navigation; issuance of navigational licenses, keeping general records of ships, as well as supervision over their proper technical condition.

In addition, we note that many users are wondering if a small craft is a vehicle. To answer, let us again turn to the definition: "A vehicle is a vehicle for the movement of passengers and/or cargo." Since each watercraft, in fact, is intended to perform these functions, then any small vessel is a vehicle without the slightest doubt.

Small boats in various classifications

So, we have learned in general terms what concerns small-sized vessels in Russia, now it's time for a more detailed analysis. The fact is that, in addition to the category itself, the GIMS also identified the types of small vessels, which vary depending on the classifying attribute. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the main classifications.

By appointment

The very concept of a small vessel implies a floating craft for the carriage of passengers or cargo. But the purpose of these transportation can be different, respectively, all ships are classified into the following types:

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