Despite the widespread development and spread of road, rail and air transport, water transport is still one of the most popular ways to move people and goods. What are the reasons for the popularity of water transport and what is its advantage over its faster counterparts?
The low speed of water transport practically wiped out business passenger transportation, but the centuries-old romance of sea travel contributed to the development of a separate branch of water transport, such as travel on cruise ships. And small water transport, yachts, boats and boats are deservedly popular among outdoor enthusiasts.
All water transport is divided into two large groups according to the waters used - river and sea. In turn, within each of these groups, all vessels by the type of cargo transported are divided into cargo and passenger.
This group includes all vessels capable of moving on the surface of the seas and oceans and performing the functions of carrying goods or passengers. The share of sea transport accounts for the lion's share of cargo transportation in the world, especially large-sized and liquid ones, such as oil, oil products, liquefied gas and chemical products. The main two groups of cargo ships are tankers for the transport of liquid cargo and container ships, which transport all other cargo in universal 20- or 40-foot containers. Less common are more highly specialized seagoing vessels adapted for transportation, for example. cars, cattle or frozen food. The difficulties encountered in the operation of this type of water transport are the need to build large ports equipped with a large number of loading and unloading systems. But with a proper and modern approach to logistics, all these problems can be easily solved, making maritime transport in the right hands one of the most profitable enterprises in the world.
Passenger sea transport is divided into liner ships carrying passengers along strictly defined routes, this group includes ferries operating both between different ports of one of the continents and transoceanic, and to the cruise fleet, each of the ships which is a city in miniature. Cruise ships are capable of carrying several thousand passengers, providing them with the highest level of comfort and safety. A cruise on such a liner leaves an unforgettable experience!
And of course, do not forget about the huge army of private yacht owners, from miniature boats, which can hardly accommodate two or three people, to giant yachts of billionaires, in terms of amenities that are not inferior to cruise ships. The romance of sea voyages fanned by centuries, sung in novels about great captains and brave pirates, pulls hundreds and thousands of modern amateur sailors into the sea! All these ships and ships also belong to sea water transport.
This group of water transport includes all vessels carrying passengers or goods on inland waterways - rivers, lakes or canals. True, there is one interesting exception - although the Caspian Sea is a lake, because of its size, ships plying from its shores are classified as sea transport.
Good day, everyone! Today I would like to discuss such a phenomenon as river tourism in Russia. And to figure out why it is not very popular in our country, and also, possibly, to dispel some "myths" that are attributed to river travel.
I will share with you my personal experience about my two water travels. I would like to start from afar and talk a little about history. My first cruise took place back in 1980. And it was a sea voyage on the Dmitry Shostakovich ship. Cruise on the Black Sea - from Odessa to Batumi and back. In the cities where they stayed: Yalta, Sochi, Sukhumi, meaningful excursions were held. I would like to note that water tourism in the USSR was elite and expensive.
My second trip was a river cruise on the Volga in 2016. I have an article about this trip on the channel, I recommend you read it. We are on the road for 7 days along the route: Yaroslavl - Rybinsk reservoir - White lake - Onega lake - Kizhi - Petrozavodsk - Lake Ladoga - Valaam. And in my opinion, since the times of the USSR, the attitude towards water tourism has changed, it has become more widespread and generally accessible. The ships became more comfortable and a huge number of different routes appeared.
And now I want to highlight several features of river tourism that may not be entirely clear to people who have never traveled by water transport.
For many people, this is one of the key aspects of choosing a place and method of recreation. I will not dissemble the pleasure is not cheap, but the price is absolutely justified, why - I will tell you in the following paragraphs. The price in our time for such a cruise is about 3000 rubles per day.
Personally, I did not even ask such a question, but oddly enough, many of my acquaintances and friends were greatly interested in this and in some way even frightened. I want to say right away that when you sail on a beautiful snow-white, three, four-deck ship, you feel more free than ever. The vessel has a large territory and includes: an open deck, a restaurant, a cafe, a gym, a club, a library, some vessels even have swimming pools. In addition, if we are considering a tourist cruise, there are long stops every day to explore a new city.
Further, I would like to note that a large number of people do not want to travel by water transport, referring to the fact that it is boring and monotonous. Of course, it all depends on the category of the vessel. During my trip, the entertainment program was very rich and varied: various sports events, performances by musical groups, master classes, discos for young people in the evening and an equally varied entertainment program for children. I would also like to note that the average age of tourists on river cruises is 40-45 years old, so the entertainment program is adapted to this category. It is very good that people are vacationing with families.
I traveled in the summer, and at this time, waves on our rivers are quite rare. And all my girlfriends endured this cruise without any difficulties.
Human transport has always played a big role in everyday life.
Since ancient times, people have learned to use various animals for this purpose, but even before the appearance of the wheel, many paid attention to the expanses of water.
It turned out to be very convenient to use rivers as roads. In addition, it was necessary to develop the fishing craft, for which it was necessary to somehow learn how to navigate the seas, at least in the coastal zone.
According to some research by archaeologists, the first floating craft that was invented in ancient times was a raft. People found that the tree adheres well to the surface of the water and decided to use this circumstance to their advantage. Several tree logs tied together to create a simple but effective raft. As a rowing tool, a board or pole was used, which simply pushed off the bottom.
Interestingly, the famous catamaran, which can be seen in parks and on sea beaches, owes its name to the raft. In Tamil, the word “kattumaram” literally means “tied logs”.
As time went on, people noticed that the rafts did not quite meet the requirements, which gradually increased - something more efficient and practical was needed. Then a dugout boat appeared. For its manufacture, a thick tree trunk was used, in which a cavity was hollowed out.
The most ancient archaeological finds that have survived to this day are boats built about seven thousand years ago. The oldest boat was found in Kuwait and dates from this period.
The next step was to use the sail. It is not known exactly when this very effective equipment appeared on boats, but most historians agree that the Egyptians were the first in this area. We find the oldest image of a ship under sail in the images of the Egyptian queen Hatshepsut. She lived about three and a half thousand years ago, so you can roughly estimate when the first sailboats appeared.
For several thousand years, sailing shipbuilding developed and this happened until the beginning of the nineteenth century, when shipping began to develop.
The last most famous sailing ship built at the beginning of the twentieth century is the four-masted barque "Kruzenshtern".
Military water transport
The essence of tourism, its forms and types, as well as the factors causing the need for tourism are considered, the foundations of the tourism economy at the industry level are revealed, the characteristics of the tourist market and the mechanism of its functioning are given.