Smelkova A

Will Kamchatka feed itself

A Yu Smelkova Economic and social problems of the Kamchatka region

Coursework in economic geography of a student of the Faculty of Geography and Ecology of the Natural and Environmental Institute of Moscow State Regional University (Moscow, 2006)


Kamchatka is a land of volcanoes and fast mountain rivers, a fascinating variety of cultures, numerous species of plants and animals, a kaleidoscope of bizarre landscapes ... For many, it seems to be a kind of paradise, untouched by civilization, beautiful and prosperous, but few people know that a complex of problems is hidden behind the apparent well-being.

Active transformations of the natural environment for economic purposes always lead to landscape degradation. This process became especially active when the traditional use of natural resources by the indigenous population was gradually almost supplanted and, in addition to reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting, industry and mining began to develop on the peninsula. At present, the decline in industrial capacities and, accordingly, the reduction of jobs have led to an increase in poaching, which contributes to the destruction of ecosystems ... The low standard of living of the population is also closely related to the low level of culture, separation from old traditions ... Thus, such an extraordinary a place like Kamchatka has a whole range of problems, the solution of which is urgent, because the future of our country and the whole world depends on how we treat the environment and whether we are able to preserve this unique property.

General characteristics of the region's economy

Kamchatka region was formed on October 20, 1932 as part of the Khabarovsk Territory, since 1956 it has been allocated as an independent region. Includes the Koryak Autonomous Okrug. The area is 472.3 thousand km 2. It occupies the Kamchatka Peninsula with the adjoining mainland, as well as the islands - Komandorskie and Karaginsky. Includes 11 districts. In the GRP structure, according to 2002 data, industry accounted for 38.9%, agriculture - 5.6%, construction - 7.5%, transport - 5.3%, trade and commercial activities for the sale of goods and services - 8, four %.

Kamchatka's economy has its own specifics and a number of features, and at the same time has a pronounced mono-structural character. The industrial complex of the Kamchatka region is represented mainly by industry, sea and air transport, agricultural and construction industries.

Kamchatka fish farm satisfies 17.3% of all Russia's needs. Fish specialization turned out to be the most highly efficient and competitive sphere of the economy, on the basis of which the entire production and labor potential of the region functions. 90% of the total production is occupied by active fishing, the subjects of which are competing for raw materials (quotas) and sales markets.

The second significant area of ​​the economy is the forestry and woodworking industry. Its products are traditionally exported outside the region. Kamchatka itself has little demand for forest products. The production potential of the industry is used today by 50%.

Agriculture is represented by two types of production: the traditional economy of the indigenous peoples of the North, associated with reindeer husbandry, and active agriculture, stall and pasture animal husbandry. The second accounts for 90% of the gross agricultural output. Main products: potatoes, cabbage, forage crops, milk, eggs, meat, etc.

The processing industry is represented by 14 enterprises, mainly of the type of joint stock companies. These are bakeries, food factories, dairies, a confectionery factory, a mineral water plant.

On the way from the Elizovo airport to Petropavlovsk, residents and guests of the peninsula are greeted by a sculpture of bears with the inscription: "Russia begins here." And a rare tourist is not photographed here.

And very soon, at the beginning of November, in the regional center there will be an opening of a new attraction - the so-called Zero Mile, the temporary symbol of which has already been installed on the street. Leninskaya, 65.

A memorable photo near a striped post with a sign "0 km" and the opportunity to send a letter or a postcard with a mark confirming the presence on the edge of Russia can be an excellent addition to pictures on horseback on the Yelizov bear or against the background of volcanoes that love do residents and guests of Kamchatka.

We found a person who is directly related to Zero Mile. Viktor Sorokin is a former entrepreneur, and now the head of the sector of innovative social and cultural projects in the Kamchatka center of folk art under the regional ministry of culture.

Prompted by Skvortsov

- Victor Evgenievich, how did the idea of ​​"Zero Mile" come about and who helped to implement it?

- This idea was suggested by the ex-mayor, now late Vladislav Skvortsov, and this is not our first joint project. Few people know that the idea of ​​the “Visiting Kutkh” ethno-site in Petropavlovsk was also implemented with the support of Vladislav Vasilyevich. But to implement both projects we were helped by the masters of the Fund for the Support of Folk Art Crafts of the Aborigines of Kamchatka.

- The tradition of counting from the building of the main post office was established by the great Russian emperor Peter I. In St. Petersburg, the countdown of the zero kilometer was taken from the building of the post office, there is also a monument there. And then this tradition began to spread throughout many cities of Russia. There was no such sight in Kamchatka, and it was decided to fix it. A year ago, a “milepost” was installed on Leninskaya, 65, near the building of the main post office, and in November we plan to open a zero mile sign, which will be depicted on the pavement, as in Moscow, for example. But the KP area actually used to be a checkpoint, there was a barrier here and the city ended.

Help Needed

- There are many travelers who, during each of their trip, leave conventional signs confirming the fact of their presence in a particular place. For example, guests of the peninsula can come to the "Zero Verst" and send their relatives a postcard with a picture of a local landmark, and then start their journey around Kamchatka. We plan to install an antique-styled mailbox, issue original envelopes, and make this place as attractive as possible for people. True, for this we need the help of the residents of Kamchatka themselves.

A few years ago, products of local producers on the tables of Kamchatka residents were a rare guest and were lost against the background of imported ones. The exception, perhaps, was bakery products and, of course, fish. However, the number of agricultural enterprises in the region is gradually increasing, and the range of products produced on the peninsula is expanding. In 2012, in the regional capital, in the building of the Exhibition and Convention Center, the first permanent fair of Kamchatka producers was opened, where you can buy fresh and high-quality products without a trade margin. The number of such fairs has increased with enviable constancy, and today they operate in all microdistricts of the city.

- In the Kamchatka Territory, about 30 organizations, 274 peasant (farmer) households and individual entrepreneurs and almost 7 thousand citizens running personal subsidiary plots, as well as about 80 enterprises processing workshops of individual entrepreneurs, are engaged in the production of agricultural products, carrying out their activities in the field of food and processing (not counting fish processing) industry, - said the Minister of Agriculture, Food and Processing Industry of the region Alexander Kucherenko. - Today, there is a steady dynamics of growth in the volume of production in the following areas: pig breeding, dairy cattle breeding, beer products and vegetable processing.

Gradually, imported "milk", meat, vegetables and drinks disappear from the refrigerators of Kamchatka residents.

Bread is the head of everything

- The assortment includes more than 200 items of bakery, confectionery and ram's products for every taste of the buyer. By the way, we are the only ones on the peninsula that produce the famous bagels and dryers. The company's products have repeatedly won and are taking first places, as evidenced by numerous diplomas of the All-Russian competitions "Leader of Quality", "100 Best Goods of Russia", "Quality Mark of the XXI Century". The workers of the plant received the prizes "Best Baker", "Best Confectioner".

In addition to the social Darnitsky, Bely and Avachinsky, as well as the beloved Kamchatka bread, we produce more expensive bread with various additives in the form of dried apricots, prunes, nuts, etc. The company does not stand still and is constantly expanding the range of products offered ... Among the new products is the Samarkand flatbread, which we are very proud of. People from Kamchatka have already tasted the famous Italian bread Ciabatta. For the convenience of consumers, we have released this delicious bun in two versions, weighing 300 and 150 grams, just for one breakfast. The hit of our sales is very much with natural cottage cheese, the production of which we are actively increasing in order to meet the demand. The people of Kamchatka also fell in love with our buns, including those with local berries - blueberries and lingonberries.

You can buy wonderful new items and products you already love in the Khlebushek branded retail chain, and, moreover, it is much cheaper. I am glad that there are always a lot of buyers in our retail outlets, and there are consumers who prefer our products. We continue to try to please our fellow countrymen with a wide variety of taste preferences.

A matter of taste

New manufacturers also appear on the market, which are also appreciated by consumers.

Bread prepared according to modern widespread technologies is microbiologically very inferior to sourdough bread. Firstly, when yeast is used as a result of fermentation, secondary metabolism products are formed: alcohol, acetoin, diacetyl, butyraldehyde, dimethyl sulfide and many others, which over time can lead to unwanted metabolic changes. Secondly, modern bakery largely implies the use of chemical components that are far from beneficial to health. All kinds of baking mixes, yeast accelerators, gluten improvers, stabilizers, emulsifiers, sweeteners, dyes, trans fats - this is not a complete list of what modern "bread" can contain, so we decided that our baked goods will contain only natural ingredients and no "chemistry"! The oven leaves a hearty, tasty bread that benefits our health.

We are constantly working to expand the range. All the novelties of Vegetoria are welcomed with a bang. For example, “Three Seeds” bread is as delicate as a biscuit cake. A sprinkle of sesame, pumpkin and sunflower seeds makes it not only fabulously delicious, but also the most beautiful of all breads in our line. And rye-wheat bread "Finnish" with the addition of bran is the lowest-calorie bread, suitable for those who carefully monitor their calorie intake. The fellow countrymen also liked the Kamchatsky rye custard bread with the addition of seaweed. Crispy salted wheat cracker with sesame seeds, flax seeds and sunflower seeds just went on sale and became a super hit. If you're lucky enough to find it on the counter, be sure to take a try. We are sure you will like it.

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