Original Russia: Mari

Original Russia: Mari

Even an experienced tourist will receive unforgettable emotions from the modern architecture of Yoshkar-Ola, from the original Mari culture, traditional crafts and opportunities for recreation in the snow-covered nature. Explore the possibilities of winter recreation in the Republic of Mari El as part of the exhibition "Know Ours: Winter 19/20".

This year, you will find all the most up-to-date information about recreation on winter destinations in Russia at the tenth All-Russian online exhibition for professionals of the travel industry "Know Nashe: Winter 19/20", where about 40 exhibitors are representatives of host companies , tour operators, tourism development centers, hotels - will present a new Russian tourism product and announce plans for the winter season.

Within the framework of the exhibition "Know Ours: Winter 19/20" experts of the Ministry of Youth Policy, Sports and Tourism of the Republic of Mari El will hold a webinar.

Topic: “Salam lije! Europe is closer! " New Year in Mari El: a European fairy tale and loyalty to traditions. Raffle! "

When: October 18, 14:00 (Moscow time).

Moderators: Maria Ivanova, head of the TIC in Yoshkar-Ola; Svetlana Ivanova, director of the Calypso travel agency.

New Year excursions and master classes in Mari El

At the heart of the large-scale New Year's festivities in the republic is the Mari national holiday Shorykyol, which means “sheep's leg”. Tour programs in winter Mari El are developed taking into account the authentic New Year traditions of the Mari people. This includes rich excursions filled with vivid folk traditions and customs, unique master classes in the preparation of national dishes, folk winter games, fun, walks, etc.

Connoisseurs of outdoor activities, tired of the bustle of the city, have an excellent opportunity to spend their holidays in the national village: to join the peasant life, enjoy a real country bath and spend time outdoors in the company of family and friends. All this is presented in the seasonal offers of tourist complexes of the Republic of Mari El.

  • For example, in the village of Shorunzha - here tourists will get acquainted with authentic Mari rituals, customs, folklore, national cuisine, traditional Mari embroidery and crafts.
  • In the ethnographic complex "Una Kudo" guests are given the opportunity to closely get acquainted with traditional Mari crafts, try on national costumes, taste Mari cuisine.
  • Tourists will also study the culture of the Mari people in the "Razdolye" tourist complex.

The history of the formation of the Mari culture began in the early Middle Ages. It was in the VI-VII centuries. the Mari tribes settled in the northern and eastern directions up to the Vyatka river and in the south - up to the Kazanka river. However, traces of migration of Indo-European peoples on the territory of Mari El suggest that even in the Bronze Age, the genesis of the Chirkovo culture was present here.

During their centuries-old history, the Mari were under the rule of the Khazar Kaganate, were part of the Volga Bulgaria, and in the XIII century the Mari Territory became part of the Golden Horde. After 2 centuries, the Kazan Khanate was formed, which was adjacent to Russia.

The geographical position of the Mari region predetermined all further history. Gradually, certain border areas swore allegiance to Ivan the Terrible, and after the fall of the Kazan Khanate, the process of accepting Russian citizenship began to be massive. At the beginning of the 18th century, the region was assigned to the Kazan province.

The modern history of the region began after the revolutionary events of the early 20th century. It was then that the Mari Autonomous Region was formed. The republic acquired its modern name in 1992.

Today, evidence of the eventful history of Mari El is scattered throughout the republic. The republic will surprise with natural attractions. Hospitable Mari will certainly treat guests to both traditional Volga dishes and real wonders. Local chefs still use meat from squirrels, hawks, owls, hedgehogs, snakes, cranes and pigeons. Mari El will delight lovers of ethnic culture, in which the traditions of the indigenous peoples inhabiting Mari El are intertwined: Russians, Mari, Tatars and others.




See See also: List of Mari El rivers

Mari El is located in the east of the East European Plain, in the middle reaches of the Volga. Most of the republic falls on the left bank of the Volga. The Mari El river network consists of 19 basins and includes 179 rivers with a watercourse length of more than 10 km. Most of the rivers flow among forests and have a mixed type of food (50% of them are due to melted snow water).

The western part of the left bank is occupied by the swampy Mari lowland. In the west of the republic, the Volga receives a large tributary - the Vetluga. To the east, along the lowland, there are left tributaries of the Volga, originating on the southern slopes of the Vyatka ridges: Malaya Kokshaga with tributaries Maly Kundysh and Bolshaya Oshla, Bolshaya Kokshaga with tributaries Bolshoi Kundysh, Rutka. There are many forest lakes in their valleys.

The eastern part of the territory is located within the Vyatka ridges (height up to 275 m), there are karst landforms, the surface is dissected by river valleys and ravines. Among them are the rivers of the Vyatka basin: Nemda with tributaries Lazh, Tolman, Shukshan, etc., Bui, Urzhumka; the left tributary of the Volga Ilet with tributaries Shor, Irovka and Yushut.

The small Finno-Ugric people of the Mari are descendants of the ancient population of the Middle Volga region. The Mari are often called the last pagans of Europe: some of them still pray to the same gods who were honored by their ancestors. “Culture. F ”tells about the history and culture of the original people.

Who are the Mari

The oldest homeland of the Mari is the Middle Volga region, where the Republic of Mari El is now located. Historians believe that the ancestors of the modern Mari came to these lands about 1500 years ago. Their lands stretched on both sides of the Volga: the river divided the people into two ethnic groups - mountain and meadow Mari. Their traditions, national costume and even language were slightly different. After the Mongol-Tatar invasion, the Mari lands became part of the Golden Horde, and after its collapse - into the Kazan Khanate.

In the middle of the 16th century, the Mari lands became part of the Russian state. The new government introduced serfdom, military service and high taxes here, and also forcibly converted the Mari pagans to Christianity. The indigenous population resisted and rebelled for almost 30 years - this period went down in history as the Cheremis Wars. Some Mari left their historical homeland for Bashkortostan, Tatarstan and the Perm Territory. This part of the people began to be called the Eastern Mari.

Over time, Orthodoxy, Russian culture and writing began to replace the Mari language and beliefs. Some part of the locals otatarized and converted to Islam. But neither Christianity nor Islam could supplant paganism completely - some Mari still worship numerous deities and spirits.

Traditional Mari religion

There are about 40 gods in the pagan pantheon of the Mari. The supreme god-creator is considered Osh Poro Kugu Yumo - the White Big God. The Mari turn to him with the main prayers. Also in the Mari religion there are deities of the natural elements: water, forest, fire. There are also evil spirits - Keremet, Vuver. Each of the gods requires a special attitude and special rituals.

The Mari do not have traditional churches: worship and sacrifice take place in the sacred groves - kusoto. Since ancient times, more than 300 of them have survived in the Republic of Mari El. The Mari believe that during prayers in the sacred trees, onapu, the gods dwell.

The Mari priest chooses the forest and the place for prayer - kart. He is considered a mediator between people and gods - it is he who conducts the general prayer of the community. Kart beats a tambourine and raises the rhythm with a knife and an ax - this is how he drives away evil spirits from the sacred place. He asks the good gods for fertility, health, prosperity and family happiness.

For the gods to hear prayers, the Mari present them gifts. Most often it is unleavened bread, boiled goose and traditional three-layer pancakes - coman-melna. After that, a joint meal begins. Food leftovers are not thrown away: they are either burned or taken home. After finishing the prayer service, they put things in order in the sacred grove. Forests are inviolable - they do not break branches, do not pick mushrooms, and even more so do not leave garbage.

Mari culture

Many rituals have been preserved in the culture of the Mari, for example, wedding and burial rituals. One of the rituals - surem uzho - is the expulsion of an evil spirit from an entire village. According to the Mari, he relieves the village of evil forces during the grazing period.

Surem uzho takes place on the night of May 6th. On the outskirts of the village, the Mari gather, make a fire and jump over it - this is a rite of self-purification. Then its participants go to the village and go around all the houses with noise, shouts, ringing of bells. Residents of the houses meet them and treat them to eggs, bread and potatoes. Then the procession goes to the other outskirts of the village, lights the fire again, puts on the kettles and cooks treats. The Mari bury part of the food - this is how they bring gifts to the earth; the rest is eaten. The ceremony lasts until the morning.

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