The formation of any ethnic group takes place against the background of the natural and geographical environment, which has a decisive influence on the economic, cultural, political life of peoples, on their way of life and beliefs.
The Urals region is, first of all, mountains. The outlook of the population was formed under the influence of the mountain landscape. People living here do not see themselves outside the harsh nature of their native land, identifying themselves with it, being a part of it. Each mountain, hill, cave for them is a small world with which they try to live in harmony. Nature gives them amazing abilities to hear and see things that are beyond the reach of other people.
The Ural region is inhabited by a large number of nations and nationalities, large and small. Indigenous peoples can be distinguished among them: Komi, Nenets, Bashkirs, Tatars, Khanty. Russians, Ukrainians, Mordovians and many others joined them in the process of developing the region.
Komi (Zyryans) occupy the taiga zone, which in the old days made it possible to live off the fur trade and fishing in rivers rich in fish. For the first time, written sources mention Zyryan in the 11th century. It is known that since the 13th century they regularly paid the Novgorodians a fur tax - yasak. Included in the Russian state in the second half of the XIV century. The capital of the modern republic of Komi, the city of Syktyvkar, originates from the Ust-Sysolsky churchyard, founded in 1586.
Komi-Permians have been living in the region since the first millennium. ... Novgorodians, actively traveling for the "stone" (Ural) for the purpose of trade, came here in the XII century. In the 15th century, statehood was formed, later the principality recognized the power of Moscow. As part of the modern Russian Federation, Permians represent the Perm region. The city of Perm emerged as a center of the copper-smelting industry during the time of Peter the Great on the site of the village of Yagoshikha.
Initially they were part of the Volga Bulgaria, after the conquest by the Mongol-Tatars they were included in the Golden Horde. After its collapse, part of the Kazan Khanate. As part of Russia since the time of Ivan the Terrible, who seized Kazan. In the 17th-18th centuries, the Udmurts took an active part in the uprisings of Stepan Razin and Emelyan Pugachev. Izhevsk, the capital of modern Udmurtia, was founded in the second half of the 18th century. Count Shuvalov at the ironworks.
Most of the peoples of the Urals have lived here for only a few centuries, being an alien population. And what about them? The Ural land was chosen by people for a long time. The Mansi, formerly known as the Voguls, is considered to be a truly indigenous people. In local toponymy, there are still names associated with this name, for example, the Vogulovka river and the settlement of the same name.
Mansi belong to the Finno-Ugric language family. They are related to the Khanty and Hungarians. In ancient times, they inhabited the lands north of Yaik (Ural), but they were driven from the inhabited territories by the nomads who came. The chronicler Nestor calls them "Ugra" in the most ancient chronicle "The Tale of Bygone Years".
Mansi is a small people, consisting of 5 independent and isolated groups. They are distinguished by their place of residence: Verkhoturskaya, Cherdynskaya, Kungurskaya, Krasnoufimskaya, Irbit.
In the Chelyabinsk region, they are making another attempt to raise the tourism industry. The Ministry of Economic Development of the region, which took this direction from the Ministry of Culture a few months ago, has developed, according to Znak. om, a tourism development strategy in the area. The document should be shown to Governor Alexei Teksler in the near future. Recently, online discussions of the developments of the Ministry of Economy and other departments with experts took place. In the public sphere, this work is evaluated more modestly, calling it the definition of strategic directions for development, which will not be formalized in a specific planning document. At the same time, the authorities of the region are counting on getting into the national project "Tourism and hospitality industry" in order to receive federal funding.
According to Znak. om, the future of tourism in the South Urals will develop along three general lines. The region is divided into three clusters, which were presented to experts by the curator of tourism in the Ministry of Economy, deputy head of the department, Andrey Minchenko. The north of the Chelyabinsk region is united into the "Lake District" cluster, which is now mainly engaged in receiving tourists from Chelyabinsk and the Sverdlovsk region, in the west it is proposed to create a cluster "Mountain Ural", which has been much talked about recently, in the south a large territory is united into the "Yuzhnoe ring ”, the center of which is Arkaim. According to Minchenko, Chelyabinsk and the surrounding area were not included in any clusters, since it is not very clear who comes to the regional center and why, and the surrounding areas visited by the townspeople are more likely leisure than tourism.
As for long-term goals, the authorities want to increase the tourist flow by 1.7 million tourists a year in 15 years. That is, from 2.5 million people now to 4.2 million in 2035. In addition, tourism is planned to grow from weekend tours to multi-day tours.
“We need changes in the hospitality infrastructure, we need 25 thousand new places in hotels, part of this volume can be built in the form of non-capital facilities,” Minchenko said. - But we must strive to build capital formats. For this we will allocate investment sites and provide support measures. The most preferable is the capital format of 150 numbers or more from federal and international network brands. They will be given priority. "
This area is the most developed and understood by the authorities. Partly due to the fact that this project includes ideas proposed several years ago when preparing the Sinegorye tourism cluster: in 2016 the project received federal approval, but due to funding cuts it never received money. Now it has been repackaged and promoted again. "Gorny Ural" did not receive support in the competition of the Agency for Strategic Initiatives, but it is the first formally created in the region cluster, which involves the synchronous development of infrastructure around the main tourist sites - national parks ("Zigalga", "Zyuratkul", "Taganay"), valleys the Ai river, the cave complex in the Ashinsky region, the Turgoyak lake and the lakes in the Chebarkul region.
“We need to pull off the flow of tourists from Turgoyak in order to reduce the load on the lake, for this we are creating a cycling route to Taganai and“ Solnechnaya Dolina ”. Although it is not yet clear how to allocate land for it, - said Minchenko. - Rafting on the Ay river is visited by 150 thousand people a year without sanitary conditions, without garbage collection. This infrastructure must be created. “Taganay”, for obvious reasons, is our pride, it is in the top ten protected areas - leaders in Russia ”.
According to Minchenko, it is proposed to allocate an investment site at Taganai - the Nazminsky complex, where 17 hectares are allocated for a large chain hotel.
There is also a unique complex "Porogi" on this territory - one of the first power plants in the country in the village of the same name. But there is practically no place for a tourist to live and eat in the village, one has to go there along a bumpy road, and the main object requires restoration.
Another point of attraction is the new Zigalga National Park and the access point to it - the village of Tyulyuk. According to Minchenko, next year the authorities will try to obtain federal funding for the construction of a full-fledged Meseda-Tyulyuk road. Now there is a broken primer.
This project is less developed, the area is not the most visited, and, apparently, the authorities do not really understand what to do with it. Of the presentations that have sounded, only Kyshtym has a more or less ready concept, which proposes to develop, on the one hand, children's and sports forest tourism, on the other, to lure people into the atmosphere of an ancient city. True, for this you need to put it in order.
In addition, there were general words about the need to change the approach to lakes, not to turn them into a heap of recreation centers that do not allow strangers to the water, but on the contrary, to open water for people, while hotels, bases and restaurants to build a little further away. But no one knows how to change the “fence” tradition in practice. Over the summer, on the same beach, they can first demolish and then build a fence several times. Or suddenly it turns out that the beach, which has always been considered common, is a private territory and the owner decided to charge a fee for access to water. All this has already happened last summer.