How to get land for an apiary in Russia

Beekeeping as a business: apiary development plan

Breeding bees is an interesting, useful and profitable business. Beekeeping is a line of activity in the field of personal subsidiary farming; farmers and large agro-industrial complexes are engaged in it.

The shoulder is becoming a source of honey and related products with tremendous health benefits. Many owners of plots in the private sector, having a free area of ​​land, set up hives and are engaged in breeding bee colonies.

Without experience and special knowledge, it is difficult to cope with such work, but gradually the beekeeper masters all the secrets of the craft, caring for bee colonies brings more and more pleasure. But is it possible to keep bee hives in the settlement, does this not violate the rights of neighbors?

Specially for beekeeping, several laws have been developed that regulate this type of subsidiary farming, the rules for keeping bees in settlements. There is no legislative norm that would prohibit the installation of beehives on the territory of a village, a cottage community, or a private sector within a house. It is also allowed to breed bees in SNT, in the country.

ATTENTION! The beekeeper must only maintain bee colonies, taking into account the approved rules, observe some restrictions.


More than one law on bees and their maintenance has been adopted, if you study the legislative documents on this issue comprehensively, you can understand all the issues of interest. There are several main points:

  • Federal Law No. 66 of 15. 4. 8 "On horticultural, vegetable gardening, summer cottage non-profit associations of citizens."
  • Federal Law No. 112 of 07. 7. 3 "On personal subsidiary plots."
  • Veterinary and sanitary rules for keeping bees.
  • Others.

These documents do not contain any prohibitions for beekeeping within settlements and associations (dacha, garden).

What issues are considered by legislative documents in relation to beekeeping? They regulate the breeding of bee colonies, keeping, obtaining honey and other products, the participation of these insects in the pollination of agricultural crops.

By law, citizens can engage in beekeeping in order to obtain monetary profit. But at the same time, they must register individual entrepreneurship and take into account earnings from honey and related products. Several beekeepers have the right to unite into a single beekeeping farm.

How the keeping of bee colonies is regulated

To conduct your beekeeping business correctly, you should study the main laws on this topic. They have the following restrictions and rules:

Since Soviet times, beekeeping has been considered a very profitable occupation. This trend has continued to this day. Apiary business is very popular in Russia and is on the list of the most common types of home business.

This is due to the constant demand and usefulness of the final product and the relatively small cost of money and time to maintain the economy.

It will be quite difficult for a beginner businessman to start his own business without special knowledge and an action plan. You will not be able to find training courses on breeding bees. However, if you have enough capital to get started and an irresistible desire to act, then you can hire an experienced beekeeper.

This article is an attempt to simplify the process of drawing up a business plan for a beekeeping farm as much as possible. Ultimately, however, only your perseverance, ingenuity and serious attitude to business can lead you to the desired success.

Attractiveness of a business idea for creating a beekeeping farm

The initial stage of drawing up a business plan is the process of analyzing and determining the prospects for the future business. It is at this stage that a novice businessman must firmly decide for himself whether it is worth implementing the idea or not.

In order to help you make such a difficult decision, here are some of the benefits of beekeeping. The most tangible ones are:

  • Business investment is relatively small. To organize a beekeeping farm, you will need to buy hives, the necessary tools and bee colonies. With proper business management, investments can easily pay off within the first year of operation.
  • Bees are independent insects. Their natural way of life requires minimal attention from humans. So, unlike other types of farming, bees do not need to be fed, treated or disposed of.
  • There are no monopolists in this industry on the market. This is due to the fact that the breeding technology is not subject to unification, and the low start-up capital allows any small entrepreneur to occupy his own niche in the market.
  • You can open an apiary outside the city, in your garden or cottage.
  • Statistical studies among consumers of beekeeping products have shown that they prefer to buy honey at markets and apiaries. Due to this, it can be concluded that the beekeeper is not threatened by competition and monopoly pressure from distribution networks.
  • Not subject to land taxes, has no associated utility costs.

  • When placing beehives in rural areas, you will often not be required to pay rent. Bees pollinate various crops, so any farm will be interested in placing bee colonies on its territory.
  • Forestry also willingly cooperates with beekeepers. Having received the appropriate permissions, you can place your hives in the forest.

It should be borne in mind that with good quality, beekeeping products will always find their way to the heart of the consumer.

Honey and related products are widely used in medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Along with its exquisite taste, honey has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.

There is no federal law in Russia that would contain general principles of legal regulation of beekeeping, but many regions have adopted regional regulations. Each of them discusses the question of how to arrange land for an apiary. Also, the industry is regulated at the federal level.

Legislative framework on beekeeping - Forest Code

Land plots are provided to citizens for organizing beekeeping in accordance with the Land (if the land is within the boundaries of the municipality) and Forest (in the forest, forest belts) codes of the Russian Federation.

According to Art. 38 of the Forest Code of the Russian Federation, on the lands of the forest fund, you can place apiaries, install hives, make temporary buildings, but you cannot erect capital structures, i.e. objects with a foundation, buildings with walls and ceilings made of metal structures.

Beekeepers can use land for agricultural activities on the basis of lease agreements or register them for use.

For rent, you need to register a private household, individual entrepreneur or legal entity. P 3.Art. 9 FZ "On the turnover of agricultural land" dated 24. 7. 002 No. 101-FZ provides for the maximum term of the lease agreement - 9 years. The minimum period is determined locally.

In accordance with paragraph 1 of Art. 24 of the Land Code of the Russian Federation, land is provided for use for running private household plots in municipalities for a maximum of 6 years. The gratuitous use agreement is concluded for a maximum of 49 years.

To accommodate nomadic apiaries, it is not necessary to arrange a plot. But this issue needs to be coordinated with the farmers on whose territory the hives will be installed, the veterinary service, and local authorities.

Registration with the administration of the village or village to which the site belongs, and a special veterinary permit are required.

Searching for a land plot to open your own apiary

A stationary apiary should be located at least 500 m from highways and railways, sawmills and power lines. Remoteness from industrial facilities, radio and television broadcasting stations, airfields - at least 5 km.

Nomadic apiaries are located at a distance of at least 1.5 km from each other, but as close as possible to the main accumulation of cultivated melliferous plants.

Having approached the organization of the belts correctly, using high-tech equipment and regularly caring for the bees, the owner will be able to get a high-quality environmentally friendly product. By increasing production volumes and selling a natural product to the market, the beekeeper will regularly make a profit.

This branch of agriculture has evolved over the millennia and is filled with a huge number of different techniques, secrets and tricks. Some hereditary beekeepers begin to learn this skill from childhood and improve it to a ripe old age. However, this does not mean at all that an ordinary person cannot get acquainted with all the intricacies of this craft. You just need to follow the instructions of the professionals.

Beekeeping for Beginners: First Steps

If you decide to acquire an apiary and consider yourself a proud squad of beekeepers, then you should get to know very well the most important link in this business - bees. You need to find out what they live, how they eat and how their population works. In other words, learn the basics of the biology and physiology of bees. Whole treatises have been written about such things. But you should not settle in libraries, but it is enough to learn the basics of beekeeping for beginners and know where to start.

Everything about bees and beekeeping for beginners

First, you should learn as much as possible about the life of honey insects. For novice beekeepers, it will not be superfluous to get acquainted with the methods of working in the apiary, watching numerous videos about bees and beekeeping, where professionals share their experience and reveal the secrets of production.

Each swarm has its own way of life and its own laws. The swarm is called the bee family. Each such swarm has a queen, and she is the only one. Its purpose is to lay eggs to reproduce future offspring. The uterus lays eggs in combs on average up to 1500 per day. She performs clutching from the time of awakening to the beginning of frost. There is a special group of hive dwellers that accompanies the uterus during her life. These insects take care of food and clean up after it. To reproduce offspring, the so-called drones mate with the mother of all inhabitants of the hive. They do no other work than this, and are useless for the collection process itself. In the event that the uterus is fertilized, the drones are no longer needed, and the workers drive them out. In natural conditions, they are not able to survive and quickly die. As for the working individuals, they also have their own classification and strict hierarchy. They are usually divided into two groups:

  • Flight.
  • Beehives.

The flight team flies outside of her home and collects nectar, pollen and water. Hive - works in a hive. During the life cycle of one melliferous insect, there can be frequent exchange of responsibilities. So, beehives can become flying and vice versa. Labor activity does not depend on age. Younger and more mature individuals perform duties on an equal footing.

Beekeeping from scratch: first steps

Taking up beekeeping means entering the amazingly interesting, outlandish world of bees, superbly organized, simple in its natural perfection and at the same time infinitely complex. Amateur beekeeping will help improve health, improve financial situation, distract from bad habits, fuss and disappointments, psychological fatigue and other negative phenomena of modern life.

Seat selection

Beekeeping is not only a pleasant holiday or fun. This is primarily work. Honey is not easy for either the bee or the beekeeper. According to the popular proverb “Keep bees - don't lie in the chill”, you can't collect honey by talking.

Choosing the most suitable place for placing hives is one of the most important conditions for successful beekeeping. On a backyard or garden plot, you can always find a corner for a small apiary. The best place for hives in the garden is under fruit trees that provide shade. In the sun, the beehives get hot, and the bees can hardly tolerate the summer heat and sunshine. Strongly shaded areas, such as under conifers, are also considered bad.

Bees do not like drafts, constant winds that blow heat out of the hives, it is difficult for them to maintain a stable microclimate, so the apiary must be protected from harmful winds by buildings or a dense high fence. Cold north, north-east and north-west winds are especially destructive for bees.

High dense fences will not only protect the bees from the wind, but will also solve another important problem - they will protect people from bites in neighboring areas, which is very important. Bees, flying over a high hedge, gain height and do not pay attention to their neighbors. If the garden plots are placed very tightly, then a high hedge is a prerequisite for organizing an apiary.

It is undesirable to place the apiary in low cold places where dampness and fogs are kept. In such places, bees sit in the hives for a long time in the morning until the air warms up, finish work earlier, get sick more often and, accordingly, collect less nectar. It is also undesirable to arrange an apiary near large bodies of water, rivers. In windy weather, bees loaded with nectar and pollen often fall into the water and die. Losses can be significant, families are left without flying bees, the most efficient ones. They also do not have an apiary near a road with heavy traffic. Cars knock down heavily loaded bees flying up to the apiary, annoying with increased noise. In general, by their nature, bees love silence and solitude.

You can arrange the hives one by one, in pairs, in even rows, in a checkerboard pattern - depending on the availability of free space on the site, the placement of trees and shrubs and the selected bee care technology. With any placement, there should be space between the hives that will allow you to work with them without disturbing the neighboring family. Enough one and a half meters, and with a limited area - one. This arrangement eliminates the danger of being stung by bees from neighboring hives and does not interfere with their work.

If it is possible to place bees on the second floor or attic of a backyard building, this is the best option. With it, the attack of bees is almost completely excluded, since they fly high and they are not bothered by neighbors who are resting or working in the plots. Also, here you can create more favorable conditions for bees, protect them from wind, solar overheating. In such conditions, bees begin to work earlier in the morning, bring more nectar, and get sick less often. Some beekeepers specially make buildings to place the apiary at a height. In this case, the hives are placed close to each other for the rational use of limited space.

Do not start equipping the apiary with a large number of families. Start with 3-5, gain experience, achieve good productivity. The apiary is effective not by the number of families, but by their strength. Do not give up in case of failure, even if some of the families die. Try to identify the cause and do not repeat mistakes.

Beehives should be placed at a distance of 1–1.5 from each other. The best option for placing bees is on the second floor or attic of a backyard building.


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