The main feature of rural tourism is the stay of guests in the countryside, closer to nature and further from industrial enterprises. Guests arrive in the village to relax from the noise of the city. At the same time, they get acquainted with life in the provinces and the production of agricultural products, and become familiar with local traditions.
Rural tourism has several features:
The differences with staying at a camp site are striking. Usually the camp site is located near the city. It has a standard infrastructure and the same houses. This format does not dispose of studying the peculiarities of rural areas. You will not be able to fully learn the rustic flavor by relaxing and switching to a leisurely lifestyle.
The history of the emergence of the direction is associated with the euro crisis in agriculture in the seventies. It was caused by a decrease in the demand for the products of labor of the villagers. Therefore, many moved to cities. I had to look for new sources of income.
Agritourism helped to raise the rural economy. The very first results were encouraging. The direction became in demand, the rural infrastructure developed rapidly, unemployment decreased, and the incomes of villagers increased.
In the early nineties, agritourism reached Russia and began to gain popularity. This was also facilitated by the then state of agriculture.
Specific features, economic and social, have an imprint on the direction in each country. So, Western Europe launched rural tourism due to the crisis of overproduction of products, for Russia a logical incentive was the need to develop both agritourism and agricultural production at the same level.
According to statistics, 35% of residents of EU cities prefer rural vacations. A third go there because of the intense rhythm of city life, 20% - combine recreation with active independent travel, the same number - just want to spend time in nature.
Rural tourism has existed for over half a century. Alsace in the south of France is considered his homeland. In the early 50s, due to losses in agriculture, many farmers began to leave for the cities. To stop the migration, the French government has proposed to organize conditions for the reception of tourists on the farms. And in the 70s, rural tourism received an independent status. Now he brings in 1 billion dollars. profits to the state budget of France and $ 3 billion - to the budgets of its regions.
Rural tourism is also popular in Austria, England, Germany, Italy and Spain. In 1992, the EU reformed its Common Agricultural Policy and began to purposefully allocate money for its development, in particular for the construction of rural roads. Indeed, according to the estimates of EBRD experts, settling a native of a village in a city costs 20 times more than creating conditions for his life and work in a village. It is also calculated that the income from one bed is equivalent to the income that one cow brings to the farmer per year.
Rural tourism means both "green" (rest up to 1-2 days, picking berries, mushrooms, relaxing on the beach, etc.), and ecological (when tourists just observe nature) and agritourism ( in farmland and on farms, where you can participate in the collection of fruits, berries, vegetables, caring for pets).
Having a well-equipped house, villagers can fully or partially rent it out to the townspeople for the duration of their holidays or vacations. Tourists are also provided with meals and introduced to local attractions. Such a vacation is much cheaper than trips to the sea or abroad. Therefore, rural tourism is designed for domestic urban residents who do not have the finances for a more expensive vacation, as well as for foreigners who want to feel the Ukrainian rural exoticism. It is also beneficial for the villagers, since it gives them the opportunity to earn extra money.
In Ukraine, such a vacation is developing in the Carpathians, western regions, Crimea, Polesie and Podillia. According to the Union for the Promotion of Rural Tourism Development, more than 60% of farms are concentrated in the Carpathians, which receive "green" tourists.
Back in June 1999, the EU TACIS project "Support for Local Development and Tourism of the Carpathian Region" was launched in the Lviv, Transcarpathian, Chernivtsi and Ivano-Frankivsk regions. The main direction, according to its executive director Jim Fleineri, was the development of rural tourism in the mountainous regions of the region. The priority was explained by new trends in the market: modern tourists no longer strive for passive recreation, they want to be actively involved in the natural environment of the country in which they are.
Austria is a comfortable country for living and working. There is a high standard of living, friendly, pedantic people in German and an excellent level of service in everything. It is not surprising that many citizens of the CIS countries are trying to find jobs in this state. At the same time, not only permanent, but also seasonal work is in great demand.
Austrians are pragmatic people and in their work they value, above all, the opportunity to provide themselves with a comfortable life. This is their recognized way of self-realization and self-esteem. For this reason, it is work that is of paramount importance for local residents.
Average annual earnings in the country is $ 43,688. For comparison:
This data clearly demonstrates the benefits of employment in Austria.
The rules of registration and the possibility of working in Austria for citizens from other countries are governed by the Law on the Employment of Foreigners. It provides for this only option: obtaining a permit of a certain type. Without such a document, any work is considered illegal.
Permits are issued on the basis of labor quotas agreed annually with the governments of the federal states. At the same time, the state's immigration policy is structured in such a way that first the possibility of filling vacancies by citizens of the EU countries is considered, then by existing labor migrants in the country, and only after that citizens from other countries who are ready to come and work are considered.
Seasonal work in Austria is a good source of income for Russians. To avoid problems with the law, you will need to obtain a special permit - Beschäftigungsbewilligung als Saisonarbeitskraft. It is valid for a maximum of six months and cannot be extended. To obtain it, you must submit an application to the consulate.
The Austrian economy is considered one of the most prosperous in Europe. It is not for nothing that in the ranking of global economic competitiveness, the country, according to the report of the World Economic Forum, is in 21st place among 141 countries. From year to year, economic success is confirmed by financial indicators. So, at the end of 2019, the Austrian budget became surplus - the excess of revenues over expenses amounted to almost a billion euros. The federal budget was replenished for the year by 80 billion euros - 4.4% higher than a year earlier. While expenses increased by only 0.9 billion (1.1%).
As noted by financial experts, the reason for the surplus is a competent economic policy and a low unemployment rate. Let's take a closer look at what the Austrian economy is based on, which makes it such an attractive country for living and doing business.
In 2019, the Austrian state received a total of about 195.1 billion euros and spent about 192.2 billion euros. Both indicators have grown over the years, but lately, revenues have exceeded expenditures: thus, the budget balance has led to the emergence of a second government surplus in a row.
The dynamics of indicators can be studied on the chart below:
The 2019 taxes and duties in Austria (net income) amounted to approximately 89.5 billion euros. The main share of this amount was made up of sales tax - 30.300 billion euros (33.9%). The rest of the income categories were distributed as follows:
The actual expenditure side of the Austrian budget for 2019 was 78.870 billion euros. Almost half of this amount - 39.818 billion euros - went to support social welfare and health care. And this is how the general structure of expenses by directions of financing looks like:
National affairs, judicial system and security - 9.988 billion euros
The foreign experience in the development of ecological tourism is analyzed, the principles of the development of ecotourism are highlighted, recommendations are given for the effective involvement of specially protected natural areas of Russia in tourist activities.