Fish farming: essential equipment and basics

How to open a fish farm: profitability

The field of fish farming requires special knowledge, skills and daily close monitoring. Commercial fish farming and rearing as a greenfield business has proven to be economically successful across the globe.

Is it profitable or not

Fish is healthy, protein-rich and delicious, low in cholesterol and calories. The product is one of the main components of animal protein in the diet, calculated at 11 kilograms per year per person. The popularity of fish diversity as a food contributing to the development of fisheries is increasing.


Fish farming and raising fish as a business at home has the following advantages:

  • Fisheries is one of the fastest growing sectors.
  • Fish products have a huge and growing demand in the market.
  • High sales price of bred fish.
  • A variety of fast growing fish species are available to ensure a quick return on investment.
  • People with a different profession or job can also start this business.
  • For a large-scale project, you can draw up a business plan for a grant.
Fishing is a very profitable business

Calculating the cost of fish farming

There are broadly two types of investments in this agricultural business - capital costs and operating costs.

Capital expenditures for raising and raising fish at home include:

  • land and construction;
  • commercial waters;
  • vehicles;
  • plumbing fixtures;
  • multiple tanks;
  • oxygen meters, etc.

Operational Cost includes purchase:

  • eggs or fry;
  • fish feed;
  • electricity;
  • fuel;
  • chemicals ;
  • medicines ;
  • taxes ;
  • insurance and others.

Before starting your own business, make a detailed business plan for breeding and raising fish from scratch. The calculations will differ depending on the type of fish you choose for fish farming, the desired performance and the total land area. If you can't write a business plan yourself, ask a professional for help.

Content of the article:

Industrial fish farming is a new, rapidly developing direction in the fish farm. The technologies behind it are based on the following principles:

History of industrial fish farming

Russian fish farms started talking about industrial fish farming in the thirties. The injections used to increase the activity of the pituitary gland, created by Gerbilsky, made it possible to grow fish not only on mini-farms, but also in large enterprises.

This fish-breeding area, in order to raise fish, uses industrial and artificial reservoirs with a suitable habitat, available in the Caucasus, Siberia and the Crimean region.

The fish farming industry uses only artificial feed as feed additives for fish, thus obtaining an increase in young stock in comparison with fish breeding in natural conditions.

Domestic and foreign experience

The Japanese were the first to apply industrial fish farming in practice, they gave the idea to Russian fish breeders to use domestic and foreign experience in industrial fish farming, applying it in practice very successfully.

Domestic fish farms, which were mainly based in the central zone of Russia, adopted from their foreign colleagues the experience of growing fry in an incubation workshop, learned to use an intensive form of sturgeon breeding and from their colleagues from Siberia to artificially inseminate caviar to simplify the process of breeding fry of various breeds.

The Japanese showed the Russians that carp can be grown very successfully using artificial reservoirs equipped with circulation systems for its cultivation. After this experience, our fish farms became interested in the cultivation of tilapia, a fish that has a high food plasticity, but is rather difficult to care for. But they successfully coped with this task.

Fresh fish products are in demand at all seasons of the year among consumers of any segment. Therefore, the fish farming business will never lose its relevance, provided it is properly organized. In order for it to bring a stable profit, you need to study specialized literature before starting your business and carry out mathematical calculations that should be displayed in the business plan of the project. Difficulties in its implementation may be associated with organizational issues related to the arrangement of the fish's vital activity, as well as its feeding, care and marketing.

Business Relevance

Fisheries is an activity focused on fish farming in artificial or natural reservoirs.

Most often, one species of it is grown, since each breed requires special conditions of maintenance and care. It is possible to increase profitability in this area by organizing such events as paid fishing, as well as by including fish products in the technological process of processing.

The demand for fresh fish is high, especially in large metropolitan areas. Natural fish stocks are often limited due to the lack of sufficient water bodies or exceeding the demand for the fish breeding rate. This situation allows you to easily occupy a niche of a business that claims to become a source of stable and rather big income. The presence of abandoned reservoirs will contribute to the rapid advancement of the startup. They can be quickly converted into profitable fishing grounds. In the absence of nearby natural water basins, one can consider the option of creating their artificial counterparts in special volumetric containers.

By choosing a suitable variety of fish for the conditions that can really be created, having understood the rules of keeping and feeding, the entrepreneur will minimize the business risks associated with the death of young animals, increase the percentage of their survival and ensure the desired level of profitability.

Fish selection

When developing a business plan for fisheries, attention should be paid to the section that deals with the issue of choosing a fish variety. To ensure the profitability of entrepreneurship, varieties are selected for breeding that quickly gain weight and are unpretentious in maintenance. Moreover, it is desirable that they have good taste. These characteristics are:

  • carp ;
  • trout;
  • carp ;
  • grass carp;
  • catfish.

For entrepreneurs who have no idea about the fishing business, an excellent solution would be to breed carp, which is unpretentious in keeping, withstands temperature extremes and grows rapidly. At two years old, carp, with good care, weighs more than two kilograms, and by three years it is ready to breed.

The biological basis of fish farming

Fish are the oldest and most numerous group of all vertebrates. The history of fish, starting with their ancient ancestors, is 440 million years old. Today there are about 20 thousand species of fish. Their classification by type of habitat looks like this:

  • Sea fish. They live only in salt water (seas, oceans) - more than 11 thousand species.
  • Freshwater fish. Live in fresh water - more than 8 thousand species.
  • Brackish water fish. Habitat - desalinated fragments of the seas, river deltas.
  • Anadromous fish. They spend their life cycle both in the sea and in fresh water bodies, periodically migrating from one environment to another.
  • Semi-anadromous fish. They live in desalinated areas of the sea, and during the spawning period they move to rivers.

The lifestyle classification divides fish into three categories:

  • pelagic - live in the water column.
  • bentals - live in the near-bottom zone.
  • littoral - prefer the coastal zone.

Of all fish consumed on the planet, 90% is the catch of sea fish, a small part remains for fresh fish. Fish production is gradually decreasing due to pollution of water bodies, excess of catch rates, human interference in the ecology of aquatic systems. Given these factors, domestic and industrial fish farming is gaining in importance.

Fish farming and fisheries

Artificial fish farming is categorized as follows:

1) Standard fish farming in ponds (pond fish farming).

In pond fish farming, a reservoir with an earthen bottom, equipped with a dam, is used in habitat conditions as close to natural as possible. Fish nutrition is carried out at the expense of natural food (plants, insects and other natural organisms) and special nutritional supplements. There are two types of pond farms:

  • extensive - fish live in natural conditions.
  • semi-intensive - additional feeding is carried out.

Depending on the type of fish, the pond economy can be warm-water and cold-water. Pond fish farming is well suited for agritourism.

The fish farming business is a profitable and promising business for a number of important reasons. Increased catches, declining populations, bans and quotas make this activity attractive. Despite the seeming initial complexity of such an event, everyone can cope with it without large investments.

How to start fish farming

Open water breeding allows you to start a business from scratch when you have one in your area. If it is not contaminated with algae and debris, you will not have to spend money on cleaning. The biosystem of the reservoir provides natural food for the fish, so it is practically not required. This makes breeding easier.

But this method also has a number of disadvantages. It is necessary to protect the fishing grounds from poachers, monitor the condition and clean up of debris - the indoor pool does not clog up like that. In the case of algal blooms, you also run the risk, as in climatic events - prolonged droughts or rains. In an open reservoir, species are bred that are capable of living in specific geographic and biological conditions, so forget about sea fish. An ecosystem has been formed in the natural environment; in an artificial environment, one cannot do without filtration equipment.

Almost all types of fish are allowed into a closed reservoir, it protects against poaching and makes it possible to conduct such fisheries as the extraction of red or black caviar. But the arrangement will require investment. You will need a room with a large swimming pool, filtration plants, equipment for monitoring the quality and biochemical parameters of water. It is necessary to carefully monitor the temperature regime and purchase feed yourself.

Fish species for profitable farming

Open water is suitable for almost all species found in your climatic conditions. The combination of different species will add variety to the assortment and create an efficient ecosystem, which will generate additional income from providing the reservoir to other visitors for recreational purposes and fishing. Many are engaged in breeding strictly one species, because aggressive predators such as pike reduce the population of commercial carp or trout.

In the absence of their own reservoir and the possibility of its organization, they take a section of a river or lake for rent. The optimal method of rearing is in cages where the fish are kept in close to natural conditions and protected from hazards.

Valuable species of sturgeon and salmon are grown in closed reservoirs. There are ready-made modules for breeding them with detailed instructions. It is also profitable to keep carp in the pools - due to their rapid growth and unpretentiousness, they provide a greater weight gain.

Raising salmon and sturgeon fish for valuable caviar is a complex and demanding process. From the moment of birth to puberty, a suitable calf-bearing individual takes from three to seven non-profit years. But the investment will pay off over time, given that with this method, fish is not killed to obtain caviar, and the amount of the finished product grows every year, and replenishment in greenhouse conditions becomes a simple task - the fry are completely isolated from external hazards.

Seasonality and sales of fish products

Summer is a difficult season in this business. Young growth is still growing, and mature individuals are sold out. Fish farming companies increase the price of their products, which affects the end consumer. Although the cost of fish decreases in the fall and winter, not everyone can afford it. In Russia, only 15% of the population regularly consume this product, which is not comparable with 60% of the population in the West, where its cost is 2-3 times lower. This state of affairs is explained by the climatic conditions of the territory of Russia.

The fish business is complicated by the fact that it is not easy for producers to establish trade relations with stores, many are not ready to spend a lot of money on creating conditions for the safety of living individuals. When marketing, you need to take care of their well-being before selling. Setting up an aquarium, purifying water, enriching oxygen, ensuring a constant temperature regime are all done thanks to the equipment, and not all stores are ready to purchase it. Trade losses caused by the lack of such equipment are borne by the seller on the supplier. The way out is to open your own fish retail store.

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