The development of agriculture in Crimea was in many ways different from the central provinces of Russia. This manifested itself in a number of factors. In agriculture, in the first half of the 19th century, there was a noticeable increase in productive forces. This was facilitated by the increased settlement and development of the Crimea, which took place throughout the 19th century.
The development of agriculture in Crimea was greatly influenced by climatic, geographical and historical conditions.
Since the beginning of the 19th century, a process of specialization began in the agriculture of the Crimea. Regions of the peninsula specialize in one or another industry, in one or another type of product.
The great demand for wool in the domestic and world markets has led to the development of large industrial-type sheep breeding farms in the steppe part of the peninsula. This was facilitated by the very low population density of the steppe part.
One of the founders of sheep farms is the French businessmen Rouvier and Genet Vasal. Taking advantage of the "favorable" environment, they bought up significant land plots at fairly low prices, on which they founded their sheep farms. In such farms in the first half of the 19th century, the herds of fine-fleece sheep numbered several tens of thousands of heads.
The development of sheep breeding was also facilitated by the policy of the Russian government, which provided a number of benefits to persons engaged in sheep breeding in the southern provinces. They were provided on preferential terms and at a cheap price, large land plots, cash loans, taxes were reduced. Large sheep-breeding farms were united into joint-stock companies and partnerships.
The following data are indicative:
Years Number of goals
The above data show that in the first half of the 19th century, fine-wool sheep breeding in the Tauride province developed quite successfully - in less than half a century the number of sheep in the province increased more than 21 times.
However, the expansion of cultivated areas since the middle of the 19th century, the improvement of the farming system was accompanied by the gradual displacement of sheep breeding.
Since ancient times, grapes have been grown in the mountainous Crimea; at the beginning of the 19th century, this area mainly specializes in viticulture.
As already mentioned, after the annexation of Crimea to Russia, a great contribution to the development of viticulture was made by the closest associate of Catherine II - Grigory Potemkin. He actively invites specialists in this culture from different countries to Crimea, subscribes the best varieties of grape vines and in every possible way encourages landowners and entrepreneurs engaged in viticulture.
Over the past five years, the Crimean peninsula has undergone dramatic changes that have affected the sector of the economy. For example, Sergei Aksyonov noted that one can observe a vivid example of the transition of the economy from recession to revival. What is happening with the economy on the peninsula, in fact, we will understand further in more detail.
If we talk about one of the main indicators by which the economic level of any region is measured, it is undoubtedly GRP. (gross regional product). If we look at this indicator using the example of 2014-2017, we will see that it has doubled, which is an excellent increase, but one thing needs to be clarified that this growth is indicated in ruble terms, if we consider it in dollars, the increase will be only 20 %, ($ 6.1 billion), which completely changes the picture.
In order to have something to compare these indicators with, we can consider for the period 2008-2012. At this time, the GRP growth on the peninsula was 40% - $ 5.8 billion. It should also be taken into account that Russia has been investing billions in the development of the peninsula in recent years.
So, the volume of investments over the past 5 years amounted to 641 billion rubles, which corresponds to the exchange rate of about 10 billion dollars. 95% of these investments are Russian funds. Most of the capital investment is directed to the implementation of infrastructure projects, approximately 70%. The purpose of this investment is to confirm the success of the peninsula.
In terms of their own investments, they decreased by 5 times. At the moment, they are 8.7%, and previously they were 45%. This is a vivid example of the fact that Crimean enterprises simply do not have funds for development. There are also positive trends, for example, last year the share of bank loans increased by 20%, which can certainly have a positive effect on the development of production, but one should always take into account another possibility, namely their rapid bankruptcy.
Crimeans are assured that the volume of industrial production has doubled over the past 5 years. It should be said right away that growth was indeed recorded, but only in some industries. Namely, some industries were involved in the implementation of large-scale projects. For example, the industry for the extraction of building materials that were required for construction.
We all know about the construction of the bridge, of course, spans were required for its construction, for this reason, the industry for the manufacture of metal structures was involved and there was a record increase of 1000%, which was recorded in 2017. But when the construction was completed, the production of this industry decreased tenfold. Almost half of industries are shrinking annually.