Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Agriculture is one of the most ancient human practices. Today it is associated with advanced technology: it is a broad area whose goal is to help solve the world's problems related to hunger, health problems, improve the quality of life, and also increase the amount of food for the growing population of the planet.

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The USA is in the top 3 countries with the most developed agriculture in the world, the main achievements are concentrated in the production of corn, various types of meat, milk, and other livestock products.

The United States uses some of the most advanced agricultural technologies in the world, and students who study here are mastering these technologies. Whether graduates return to their home countries or find employment in the United States, the skills are useful to help them pursue a successful career in their chosen field.

What are US Agriculture Programs

Agriculture programs are aimed at studying plants, soil, animals: research laboratories are working at universities, research is being carried out. Top American universities offer more than 30 specialties in agriculture - an international student has the opportunity to obtain degrees from associate to master in such areas as:

  • Agricultural business
  • Agricultural economics
  • Agronomy, crop production
  • Animal sciences
  • Equestrianism
  • Farm, Ranch Management
  • Food Science
  • Gardening
  • Soil Science, Sustainable Agriculture.

A variety of career opportunities open up to graduates: some large agricultural companies do not deal with animals at all, but work to improve the soil on the football field.

Requirements for Students of Agriculture in the USA

Students are expected to have developed communication skills, building interpersonal relationships, leadership skills, knowledge in the field of mathematics, mechanical technology, natural sciences.

Sector of Economics and Industry Classification

The structure of a single national economic complex. The development of the productive forces is the main factor in the social division of labor and the formation of industries and large industry groups. The economy of the national economy has many structures. This is due to the variety of production processes, its general progress, and the appropriation of production goods. The structure reflects the structure of the economy, the ratio of its subsystems and links, proportions and relationships between them. The introduction on a large scale of the achievements of science and technology in production, changes in the socio-economic conditions of life lead to out-. changes in the structure of the national economy: all new types of production are emerging and rapidly developing, which are isolated into separate sectors and sub-sectors. At the same time, the previously produced products are becoming obsolete, and some traditional industries and sub-sectors are losing their significance.

The study of various structures is associated with clarifying the place and role in the national economy of its constituent complexes, determining the ways of their more effective functioning. The organizational structure of the economy characterizes the subordination and relationship between various links of social production both vertically and horizontally. At present, this system of structures includes hundreds of thousands of associations, enterprises and organizations of the production complex and non-production sphere.

The structure of a single national economic complex of the country (industrial complex and non-industrial sphere) can be represented as follows:

- sectoral (intersectoral) national economic complexes (industry, agriculture, construction, transport, etc.); - functional complexes (machine-building, fuel and energy, agro-industrial, construction, etc.); - regional complexes (part of a single complex of the country on a certain territory); - territorial production complexes (TPK) with their main industry of specialization; - industrial centers as a link in the TPK (industrial production in a relatively limited area); - social and industrial complexes (rural area, city).

An economic sector is a set of enterprises and industries that have a common product, technology and satisfied needs.

According to Russian legislation, the industry is made up of manufacturers of similar or directly competing goods, which account for the bulk (over 50%) of the production of such goods.

The UN Statistical Commission, in its introduction to the third version of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), defines an industry as follows: a branch of an economy is a collection of all production units that carry out predominantly the same or similar type of production activity.

Any industry, in turn, consists of a large number of interconnected subsectors and industries. The emergence of a separate independent branch of the national economy, its sectoral differentiation is a constant process due to the division of social labor. There are general, particular and individual divisions of social labor.

The general division of labor is expressed in the division of social production into material production and the intangible sphere: industry, agriculture, transport, health care, physical culture and social security, public education, culture and art, etc.

The private division of labor is manifested in the isolation of individual industries and industries within industry, agriculture, construction and other industries, both material and non-material spheres.

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