In the economic system of every developed country there is a branch of "agriculture". Of course, Italy, known to many tourists, is no exception. Agriculture employs about 6% of the population of the boot country, which annually brings to the state treasury 10% of the gross domestic product (GDP). What aspects includes the broad concept of "agriculture in Italy", we will consider in our article.
Italy is a sunny country, fertile lands and climate which favor the development of agriculture. Approximately 90% of all Italian territory is devoted to the needs of typical peasant crafts. Most of the land is arable land (approximately 35% of the territory), 19% of the land is allotted to pastures and meadows, and 11% of the Italian territory is vineyards, orchards and olive groves.
Fact. The forest area is also involved in the country's agriculture. It accounts for almost 24% of the land.
Thanks to the unique location of the regions in Italy, it is possible to grow crops of a subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean climate. The largest river in the country, the boot Po, is actively involved in the irrigation of land. The foothills of the Alpine area are characterized by a large number of meadows, which are ideal places for grazing livestock. The northern Italian regions specialize in meat and cereal production, while the southern regions are famous for their vineyards, olive and citrus groves.
This is interesting! The island of Sardinia is considered the basic sheep-breeding region of Italy.
Agricultural sectors in Italy
The main branches of agriculture of the state in the Apennines are:
- Crop production is the basic branch of the economic agricultural sphere, which produces more than half of all agricultural products of the state (60%). Grain crops are grown in Italy: barley, rye, wheat, oats, as well as corn, rice, etc. Also, many industrial crops grow here: hemp, flax, cotton, soybeans, tobacco. They are used in the textile industry. Crop production is well developed in all parts of Italy.
- Floriculture is one of the most important export industries in the country. Italy sends raw materials and fresh flowers, seeds, bulbs, etc. to other countries. The inhabitants of the following regions are engaged in floriculture: Calabria, Ligurian Riviera, Sicily, Lazio and Piedmont.
- Vegetable growing is an equally important branch of the agricultural economy. In various parts of the country, Italians grow asparagus, tomatoes, sugar beets, cabbage, melons, onions, potatoes, artichokes. The main vegetable growing region of the state is Campania. Most of the vegetables for export are grown in northern Italy.
- Horticulture is the original Italian agricultural industry. The country of the boot is often called "the main garden of Europe." And all because peaches, cherries, apples, figs, pomegranates, pears, apricots, citrus fruits, as well as nuts - almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts - grow here. Most of the fruits are grown in the northern part of the country, but lemons, tangerines, oranges, citrus hybrids, and nuts can be found only in the south of the state. However, the main occupation of Italian farmers is the cultivation of grapes. Vineyards are located in every region of the state. Almost all of the harvested harvest (90%) is used to make wine. Olives are an equally important Italian culture. Most of the olive groves (about 90%) are located in the south of the country. You will not find trees with olives in Piedmont, the highlands of Trentino-Alto Adige and Aosta.
- Livestock is not the most developed industry in Italy. Production of meat and milk is carried out mainly in the northern part of the state and provides about 20% of marketable agricultural products. This figure does not meet the needs of the inhabitants of Italy. Most often, private traders are engaged in cattle breeding on small lands, so the number of "meat" animals on farms is small. There are poultry farms in almost every suburb of every Italian metropolis.
- Fishing is an underdeveloped branch of agriculture in Italy. If you carefully read the articles on our website, you will probably be surprised by the words written, because almost every restaurant in any coastal and lakeside town is famous for its fish dishes. Yes, the fishermen manage to satisfy the whims of visiting tourists, but the larger-scale fishing industry is far from Italy. There are not many fish in the coastal seas. About half of the total catch of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, molluscs and other crustaceans falls on the waters of the Adriatic Sea. A significant part of the "booty" is processed at canneries located in coastal cities and towns. Freshwater fishing looks no less deplorable. Due to environmental problems associated with the pollution of water and the surrounding area with industrial waste, the fish catch is declining every year.
This is interesting! Italy ranks first in the production of tobacco among European countries. The country exports 14 million tons of vegetables and 6 million tons of fruits every year.