How clothing for travelers has changed over the past 100 years.
Today's clothing and equipment for tourists is a huge market with hundreds of brands big and small, but it wasn't always that way. Natalia Porotikova tells how the modern look of outdoor evolved and why the Russian history of tourist clothing is especially interesting.
“... Slobtsov and Sharavin guessed that they had finally found the tent of the Dyatlov group and no other. The fact is that this tent was very non-standard and well recognizable - it was sewn from two four-person tents, lengthened twice, which made it 1.8 x 4 meters in size. Boris Slobtsov personally took part in the manufacture of the tent in 1956, so he could not be mistaken in the identification. Next to the tent stood a pair of skis stuck in the snow, and an ice ax protruded from the snow directly at the entrance. On the ice ax lay a storm jacket that belonged to Igor Dyatlov. Near the entrance, on the left hand (as viewed from the entrance), almost all the shoes at the disposal of the group were found: 7 felt boots (i.e. 3.5 pairs) and 6 pairs of ski boots. The shoes looked randomly piled up. Two more pairs of boots were lying in the central part of the tent on the right hand. "
This is an excerpt from the book by Alexei Rakitin "Dyatlov Pass". At the end of January 1958, a group of experienced tourists went on a ski trip along the approved route and disappeared; later the bodies of all nine were found in the vicinity of Mount Kholatchakhl. The clothes and equipment of the deceased tourists played an extremely important role both in the investigation and in the tragic incident itself, therefore they are described in detail. The history of the campaign, which arouses excruciating interest in itself, is valuable as a description of the camping life 60 years ago.
There is one problem with the everyday details of the long and even recent past: against the background of great historical events and human destinies, they often looked too insignificant for contemporaries, not worthy of mention, and therefore could not survive. But here the equipment of tourists is fixed by the protocol.
"... Items and personal belongings of tourists found in the tent: 9 wind jackets, 8 wadded jackets (in common parlance" quilted jackets "), 1 fur jacket, 2 fur sleeveless jackets, 4 storm pants, 1 cotton pants, 4 scarves, 13 pairs of gloves (fur, cloth and leather), 8 pairs of ski boots, 7 pieces of felt boots, 2 pairs of slippers, 8 pairs of socks, 3 skating hats, 1 fur hat, 2 felt berets, 3 compasses, 1 pocket watches, 1 Finnish knife, 3 axes (2 large and 1 small in a leather case), boot covers - 19 pcs., 2 buckets, 2 pots, 2 flasks, 1 first-aid kit. " In addition, at least four cameras were found with footage taken during the campaign. This last detail is important: the Dyatlovites were well-off tourists by Soviet standards.
In 1958, there were no modern thermal underwear, no softshells, no windshells, no trekking boots with a membrane. At the same time, the group's clothes and footwear were selected optimally from the point of view of keeping warm and protecting from the wind from what could be obtained and made in the USSR at that time.
For example, socks are mentioned as knitted, thick woolen and “thin vigone”; tourists wear them in several pairs, up to four at a time. The word "vigogne" has two meanings: 1) vicuña wool, the material for the finest and most valuable costume fabric; 2) a cheap fabric made of cotton with an admixture of wool. Obviously, the vicuña was not close here, we are talking about fine knitwear with the addition of wool fibers. The bottom layer of the tourists wore simple cotton underwear, leggings with fleece, cowboy shirts, underpants; medium, for warmth - sweaters, sweatpants (sometimes more than one); Quilted jackets and storm jackets protected from cold and bad weather. Tourist life hacks are recognized in the descriptions of clothes: a way to dry things on yourself (Zina Kolmogorova's second sweater, worn over the first one inside out, Rustem Slobodin's insoles under outerwear); cutting spare warm clothes to make mittens or a hat out of them.
In Russia, it is difficult to hide from the cold in winter. You can put on several sweaters, socks and underpants, but it will look awkward, and it is inconvenient to move in such layering. Sportsmen and tourists do not face these problems, as they use special clothing. At the same time, it may be needed not only for training and travel. In the blog "Tovariki" we tell you which brands of thermal underwear are considered the best and what are their features.
Functional underwear is a specialized garment that perfectly fulfills the task of removing liquid and retaining heat. Looks like a fitted jumper with long or short sleeves, complete with underpants. Sometimes the tops are sold with shorts.
Thermal clothing is used not only in low temperatures. The technology also avoids overheating and getting wet. These things will be indispensable in such cases:
Children's thermal underwear becomes a compromise option when the child refuses to pull on an uncomfortable and very tight jacket. It does not hinder movement, is imperceptible under ordinary clothes and successfully copes with the task of warming.
The secret of thermoregulation lies in a thin layer of air that heats up from body temperature, creating a comfortable environment.
It is important to maintain mobility. Wearing should not be uncomfortable or heavy. In order to maximize the intermediate layer to retain heat, leaving the fabric thin and light, a special weaving method is used - cellular (volumetric).
Such a woven fabric cannot provide 100% insulation, and it is not necessary. Warm air outlet is essential for better circulation. If the canvas is too dense, the person will sweat.