For a beginner about the basics in the field of extreme and emergency situations, survival, tourism. It will also be useful for fishermen, hunters and other lovers of nature and outdoor activities.
According to the method of delivery, lifeboats are divided into mechanically launched and launched by free fall.
The number of lifeboats on board a vessel is determined by the area of navigation, type, vessel and the number of people on board. Cargo ships of unlimited navigation area are equipped with lifeboats that provide the entire crew from each side (100% + 100% = 200%). Passenger ships are equipped with lifeboats with a capacity of 50% of passengers and crew on each side (50% + 50% = 100%).
Regardless of design differences, all lifeboats must:
To ensure that the boat can be used by unqualified people (for example, passengers), instructions for starting and operating the engine must be provided in a clearly visible place near the engine controls, and the controls must be marked accordingly.
Information about the capacity of the boat, as well as its main dimensions, are applied on its sides in the bow with indelible paint; the name of the vessel, the port of registry (in Latin letters) and the vessel number of the boat are also indicated there. The marking by which it is possible to identify the vessel to which the boat belongs and its number must be visible from above.
The boat must be either self-draining or have a hand pump to remove water.
The lifeboat must be equipped with a release valve. A release valve (one or two depending on the size of the boat) is installed at the bottom of the bottom of the boat to release water. The valve automatically opens when the boat is out of the water and automatically closes when the boat is afloat. Typically, this task is performed by a float valve. When storing the lifeboat on board the vessel, the drain valve must be open to allow any water that gets into the boat to drain off. When preparing the boat for launching, the valve must be closed with a cap or plug.
Expedition yachts are reliable and durable vessels that can hold a large amount of fuel. In the manufacture of expedition yachts, special steel is most often used, which is intended for industrial ships and military ships. An additional advantage of an expedition yacht is that it can be adapted to any need, for example, to build a garage on it or to place the necessary equipment for year-round living. You will learn more about the features of expedition yachts in the next article.
In the modern world of sea travel, there is a large selection of vessels of various types and for every taste. Powerboats, supernew solar powered boats, luxury sailing yachts. Fans of this type of vacation are given the opportunity to choose travel along with the type of vessel. Basically, small boats are intended for walks, short-distance travel, slightly larger boats can cover long distances.
But expedition yachts are intended for the round-the-world march. Only a brave and strong person will agree to such a long way. Nevertheless, such products have been gaining popularity lately.
Expedition yachts are fairly strong, hardy vessels with a large supply of fuel. The body is made of high-strength materials, and all the mechanics are made so simple that any trained person can fix it. Initially, such yachts were converted from industrial ships, barges, and fishing vessels.
Many modern manufacturers still use drawings of such buildings as a basis. They are distinguished by high wear resistance, although they have a minimum of beauty and grace. Expedition yachts can be divided into several types. Some are intended for an unlimited navigation area, others for going to seas with especially low temperatures and ice floes on the surface.
There are also expeditionary sailing yachts and motor sailing yachts. Depending on where you need to go on the ship and how long the journey will take, you need to choose the type. The main condition is that you need to take professionals with you on such adventures or undergo training.
Trawlers are expedition-class vessels, usually with steel hulls, with an unlimited navigation area. The sloping or straight "trawler" wheelhouse gives them the resemblance to professional vessels - tugs or fishing vessels. Actually, they originate from them.
Reliable hulls with increased seaworthiness, designed for the most severe conditions, have become the basis for modern comfortable expedition ships. Such yachts are versatile - they have high autonomy, which allows them to make long sea voyages. They are also actively used by professionals who value expedition ships for their reliability.
This is one of the options for sports tourism. It combines the technical knowledge of sailing and homemade tourism. Sailing ships require a helmsman's license, and serving ships requires an excellent theoretical foundation. This type of tourism is suitable for those who are ready to spend financial resources and free time for the sake of communication with the water element.
The sail is often used as an auxiliary propulsion device. It can be sprint, raked, direct. The sail is used not only on yachts, but also on rafts, triple boats, kayaks.
Sailing tourism requires special clothing. The true sea wolf uses a variation of layered clothing. First, thermal underwear is put on, then there is an insulating layer (from Teflis), then a protective layer (from wind, sun, water). Clothes are adjusted to suit the weather.
Only in sailing tourism, the weather is considered the most important factor for the full passage of the planned route.
This active holiday option is chosen by those travelers who, since childhood, dream of sea craft, the search for untold treasures.
Yachting can hardly be called a cheap and easy sport, because it requires excellent physical fitness.
This type of sports tourism consists of the command management of a yacht following a specific route. It appeared in the second half of the seventeenth century in Holland. In Russia, this type of extreme tourism spread under Peter 1.
Currently, yachting has gained popularity in the Mediterranean.
Yachting is not suitable for people with cardiovascular diseases, as well as for young children.
To send the natural needs of bedridden patients, special devices are used: ships and ducks. They allow you to simplify the process of going to the toilet for people who, for health reasons, can neither sit down nor get out of bed.
"Duck" is a urine collection bag that is not installed permanently for a patient, but is used as needed. The device is an oblong rectangular container with a wide neck through which urine flows.
Modern ducks are made of dense translucent plastic. It is much lighter and more comfortable than metal. On the outer surface of the container there are divisions (up to 1.5 liters). They allow you to determine the amount of urine excreted by the patient. There is a handle on one of the ribs of the container, which provides convenience when setting and carrying the duck.
A special cap with a thin belt is attached to the neck of the urine bag. With its help, the duck is hermetically closed during the idle period, which prevents evaporation
odor or accidental spillage. Thanks to its lightweight, hygienic material and well thought-out details, the bag can be used while lying down, standing or sitting.
The vessel, unlike the duck, is designed to collect all the patient's secretions. Most often used in the supine position. In shape, it is a flat oval container with sides curved inward.
Urine bags are divided into male and female. Male ducks have a wide throat without a nozzle. The patient's penis is directed into it and thus urine is collected.
The female duck is equipped with a special plastic attachment. The latter has an anatomical shape, which allows you to closely attach it to the external genital organs of a woman and gently collect urine.
According to materials, ducks are divided into plastic and metal. The latter are referred to as older models. They have an unlimited service life, but they are heavy. The metal retains the ambient temperature longer, heats up more slowly.
Trends in the development of health tourism. Medical tours Medical tourism occupies a special place in the system of global resort and tourist relations. In terms of man-days
Not everyone takes a tent as public equipment on a hike. But given the love of tourism and the ability to travel independently, this is one of the attributes that sooner or later I highly recommend purchasing. 2-4 people are suitable as public tents. The maximum weight per person is no more than 1200 grams without a cover and pegs for kopeck pieces and no more than 1000 for three rubles or more.