The ability of a person to perceive and adapt to extreme situations is the most important characteristic. The main feature of adaptation is the ability to maintain regulatory processes that ensure the balance of the organism as a system. In other words, adaptation to extreme situations is the body's ability to rebuild itself as quickly as possible under new conditions and not experience stress. That is, a person, rebuilding under these conditions, does not experience much discomfort and is able to continue to function as usual.
Extreme situations constantly arise in a person's life. Fortunately, these are not always disasters or conditions on the brink of survival. Often situations are associated with modern life: job loss or forced change of home, an unexpected exam. A person for his own health must be prepared for various situations. The extremeness of the situation is determined exclusively by the person himself.
Depending on factors, there are several types of situations:
The difference between the latter and the rest lies in the fact that more is required of the person than what he is capable of. There are signs of this situation:
It is important that the body withstands all the tests that have been prepared for it, but the psyche is no less important, because it is the behavior of a person that often determines whether he will survive or not.
When adapting to an extreme situation, a person goes through several stages. The first one is preparatory. The person is just getting ready to get into unusual conditions, so he is trying to learn as much as possible about them. This stage is characterized by a long duration.
The second stage is tension before the start. At this moment, many people doubt the reliability of technical means, design possible malfunctions or emergencies and their actions in response to them. Even those who have been in extreme situations many times pass this stage.
The third stage is characterized by acute psychic input reactions. No one can predict a person's reaction, not even the person himself. The spectrum of emotions when consciously overcoming barriers begins at an alarming level and ends with joy.
The skills that a person possesses depends on his survival in the wild. Moreover, in theory, a person can know a lot, but besides this, practical experience is needed so that in an emergency you do not have problems solving problems during survival.
Having found yourself in a false situation in a forest or other area, the skill of making a fire will come in handy. Moreover, it is necessary to be able not only to make fire with matches, but also by other means, including helpers.
You need a bonfire primarily for heating and cooking. And also for boiling dirty water from a reservoir. Therefore, being able to make a fire is quite a useful skill.
You should be able to start a fire in a situation when there is enough firewood in the forest, and when there are very few of them (steppe, thin forest, etc.). You need to know how to make a fire in a wet forest after or during the rain. Learn to use a flint, it will save you more than once.
Each situation requires a different type of fire. And remember that the fire either gives a lot of heat, or burns for a long time. For food, heating, winter and summer, different types of fires are required. In different areas, you will have different materials for kindling a fire.
Let's say you were able to make a fire in the autumn wet forest without matches and dry firewood. Warmed up, ate, drank, but sooner or later the supplies will run out. And if you have not provided yourself with food and water in advance, you will have to urgently deal with this.
You should be able to find water in any area, know the signs of proximity to water and how to get it. But besides extraction, water must be purified and disinfected. For this we need a fire or other means.
There are many plants growing in the forest that will not only help you disinfect water, but also supply your body with various vitamins. Also, knowing what plants are edible, you will provide yourself with food.
But besides plant food, do not forget about animals and birds that can be hunted using traps. If you are near a body of water, then make a trap for catching fish, or make a prison.
So, you know how to make a fire, get water and food, but what about your salvation? How will you reach people?
In an extreme situation, a person develops a special state of emotional tension, called stress. Such tension changes the usual mental processes of a person, weakens perception, sensations, attention, dulls imagination, representation, memory, inhibits thinking and speech.
In life-threatening situations, the emotional and volitional stability of a person plays a huge role, which is formed both during his daily life and in the process of purposeful emotional and volitional preparation.
Methods of emotional-volitional self-regulation play an important role in this preparation: self-persuasion, self-order, volitional self-regulation (self-hypnosis).
- assess the current situation;
- act in accordance with the decision.
Part of the person must overcome stress, because otherwise further actions may be wrong and lead to a deterioration in the situation.
If there is no firm confidence in the ability to quickly get out of this situation, and the situation does not require immediate departure from the scene, it is better to stay put, make a fire, build a shelter from scrap materials. This will help protect well from bad weather and maintain strength for a long time. In addition, it is much easier to get food in a parking lot. In some cases, this tactic will facilitate the actions of the search and rescue service, having received information about an incident in a specific area.
Having made the decision to “stay put”, you need to draw up a plan for further actions, which includes the following measures: determining your location; protection from the adverse effects of environmental factors; making a fire; sending distress signals; obtaining food and water; self-help and disease prevention.
Terrain orientation is the determination of your position relative to the sides of the horizon and local objects. Depending on the nature of the terrain, the availability of technical means and visibility, the side of the horizon can be determined by the position of the Sun, the North Star, by signs of local objects, etc.
In the northern hemisphere, the direction is not north can be determined by becoming at the local noon with your back to the sun. The shadow will indicate the direction to the north, west to the left, east to the right. Local noon is determined using a vertical pole 0.5 - 1.0 m long by the smallest value of the length of the shadow from it on the surface of the Earth. The moment when the shadow was the shortest in terms of marks on the Earth corresponds to the passage of the Sun through this meridian.
Survival in extreme situations requires endurance from a person and an unshakable belief that there are no hopeless situations. We present five stories, the heroes of which managed to survive in the most difficult conditions.
The record height, after a fall from which a person managed to survive, is 10 160 meters. This record is entered in the Guinness Book and belongs to Vesna Vulovic, the only survivor of the plane crash on January 26, 1972. She not only recovered, but also wanted to return to work - she did not have a fear of flying, because she did not remember the very moment of the disaster.
On August 24, 1981, 20-year-old Larisa Savitskaya and her husband flew from their honeymoon on an An-24 plane from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to Blagoveshchensk. In the sky at an altitude of 5220 meters, their plane collided with a Tu-16. Larisa Savitskaya was the only one of 38 people who survived.
On a wreck of an aircraft measuring three by four meters, she flew in free fall for 8 minutes. She managed to get to the chair and squeeze into it. Later, the woman claimed that at this moment she remembered an episode from the Italian film Miracles Still Happen, where the heroine survives in similar conditions. Rescue work was not carried out very actively. For all the victims of the plane crash, graves have already been dug.
Larisa Savitskaya was eventually found last. She lived for three days among the wreckage of the plane and the bodies of the dead passengers. Despite numerous injuries - a concussion, spinal injuries, broken ribs and a broken arm, Savitskaya not only survived, but was also able to build herself something like a hut from the wreckage of the fuselage. When the search plane flew over the crash site, Larisa even waved to the rescuers, but they mistook her for a geologist from a nearby expedition.
Larisa Savitskaya was twice included in the Guinness Book of Records: as a person who survived a fall from a great height, and as a person who received the minimum amount of compensation for physical damage in a plane crash - 75 rubles (in 1981 money).
On November 23, 1942, a German submarine torpedoed the British ship Ben Lomond. All members of his crew were killed. Almost all. Sailor Lin Peng managed to survive. He was lucky - during a search on the surface of the water, he found a life raft, on which there was a supply of food. Lin Peng, of course, understood that food and water would sooner or later run out, so from the first day of his Robinsonade, he began to prepare equipment for collecting rainwater and fishing. He stretched an awning over the raft, made a fishing line from the threads of the rope found on the raft; from a nail and wires from a flashlight - hooks; made of metal from a tin can - a knife with which he cut a caught fish.
Interesting fact: Lin Peng could not swim, so he was tied to the raft all the time. Lin Peng caught fish very little, but took care of its safety - he dried it on ropes stretched over the deck of his "ship". For a hundred days, his diet consisted of one fish and water. Occasionally, seaweed was overboard, the consumption of which prevented Lin Peng from falling ill with scurvy.
The bitter irony of Lin Peng's record voyage is that he could have been rescued multiple times. One day they didn’t take him on board a cargo ship just because he was Chinese. Then the American Navy noticed him and even threw a rescue buoy at him, but the storm that broke out prevented the Americans from completing the rescue mission. In addition, Lin Peng saw several German submarines, but for obvious reasons did not turn to them for help.
Only in April 1943 did he notice that the color of the water changed, and birds began to appear in the sky every now and then. He realized that he was in the coastal zone, which means that his chances of success increased many times over.