Divnogorye is a fabulous name, but it really exists in Russia, in the Liskinsky district of the Voronezh region.
Divnogorskaya Upland is located on the right bank of the Don River, 80 km from Voronezh, if you move to the south. In 1988, a museum was organized here, which in 1991 received the status of a museum-reserve. The area of the reserve is 11 km², these are chalk deposits, the maximum height of which is 181 meters above sea level.
The Tikhaya Sosna River flows at the foot of the plateau, it merges with the Don at an altitude of 78 m above sea level, and this affects the microclimate of the hill. The amount of precipitation here is 1.5 - 2 times less than on the plain. In the upper soil layer there are 15 - 20% chalk, and if you go down to 80 m, then there is chalk in its pure form.
The area of Divnogorye is a steppe zone, and today you can see more than 250 plant species there, 40% of which belong to melolyubes (calciphytes) by botanists.
The history of the reserve begins in 1991, when a museum was organized here, however, at the very beginning of the twentieth century, the famous Russian geographer and traveler V. Semenov-Tyan-Shansky spoke about the possibility and necessity of creating a nature reserve in this amazing place.
The first mention of Divnogorye was made in his notes by Ignatius Smolyanin, who accompanied Metropolitan Pimen on his journey across the Don, in 1389. Until the 16th century, it was the patrimony of nomadic peoples, and only then, in the process of developing new territories, the Moscow state included the Voronezh Divnogorye. By the way, not “miracle”, in the sense of “miracle”, but “divas” - unique chalk pillars were the basis for the name of this region. Although, otherwise, as a miracle, it is also impossible to call it.
Cave monastery, male, active. It was founded in 1650, founded by Ukrainian Cossacks. However, there is a version that the monastery existed here almost since the time of the first Christians, and, in support of this version, there are niches in the caves, similar to the cells of monasteries of antiquity, as well as drawings on the walls, similar to those found in the catacombs of ancient Rome of the early period Christianity.
Overview of RIA Voronezh: 5 main environmental problems in the region
Over the past five years, the problem of environmental waste pollution in the Voronezh region has come to the fore and is one of the most difficult to solve, said the head of the regional department of Rosprirodnadzor Viktor Stupin at a meeting of ecologists on Wednesday, September 27. At the meeting, experts selected delegates to the V All-Russian Congress on Environmental Protection, identified the main environmental problems of the region and ways to solve them.
The amount of waste generated in the region is increasing every year. Over the past four years, the volume of waste generation has increased by 2 million tons.
The volume of atmospheric air pollutants in the Voronezh region over the past 4 years has increased by 4.8 thousand tons and amounted to 72.7 thousand. These substances include carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide and others. The main source of air pollution is motor vehicles. In 2016, the volume of pollutant emissions from cars amounted to 265 thousand, or 75% of the total. According to experts, the main cause of air pollution is the use of low-quality fuel.
The environmental situation at water bodies is gradually improving. Over the past five years, pollution emissions have decreased by 5 million cubic meters. ... In the region, about 50% of rivers are classified as “clean”, 45% are “moderately polluted”, 5% are “highly polluted”. More than 270 wastewater treatment facilities are in operation in the settlements of the region. In seven areas of the region, groundwater pollution with oil products and sulfates was recorded as a result of industrial activities.
In recent years, due to fires and other environmental disasters, the loss of forests in regional ecosystems amounted to about 14 thousand. According to the head of the department of the Voronezh State Forestry University Svetlana Morkovina, the suburban forests of Voronezh are in a "state of decay."
- Forests are suffering catastrophic losses. Today, there is still an imbalance between the loss and reproduction of forests. In just five years, the area of deforestation exceeded the area of restoration by more than 350 thousand a, - said Svetlana Morkovina.
Environmental problems in the Voronezh region are determined by the presence of the largest industrial cities (Voronezh, Pavlovsk, Ostrogozhsk, Kalach, Rossosh, Borisoglebsk, Liski and others) in which a significant number of large enterprises of mechanical engineering, chemical and food industries, production of construction materials, etc.
According to the studies carried out, the greatest pollution of the atmosphere with particles of dust, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide was recorded in the southeast of Voronezh, where CHPP-1, LLC Voronezh tire production plant, JSC Voronezhsintezkauchuk, as well as in the places of passage highways with heavy traffic.
According to experts, this process occurs as a result of a significant lag in the environmental indicators of domestic cars and fuel from world standards, an important role is played by the neglect of transport junctions.
In the Voronezh region, there are 1197 river streams, over 4 thousand ponds, lakes and reservoirs. The total length of the river network reaches 9705 km. One of the main waterways is the Don with a large number of tributaries (the Voronezh, Bogucharka, Ikorets, Tikhaya Sosna, Osered, Bityug rivers).
One of the environmental problems in Voronezh is the pollution of the aquatic environment by wastewater. For example, over the past 2014, the regional department for ecology and nature management concluded more than a dozen agreements, according to which it is allowed to take water resources, about 40 business entities were issued permits to discharge industrial and economic wastewater into local water resources, as well as to use them as a system irrigation of agricultural land.
As a result of such actions, the Don is contaminated with organic substances, phosphates, nitrogen, iron, copper compounds and petroleum products. Among the surveyed objects, the Voronezh reservoir remains the most polluted.
Over 320 million m3 of wastewater was discharged into water bodies last year, including 146 million m3 with an incomplete treatment cycle. The total volume of pollutants amounted to more than 90 thousand tons.
The problems of water purification have not been solved for many years. The main reasons for non-standard cleaning are physically outdated equipment and insufficient control over the observance of cleaning technology.
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