The combination of huge underground resources, unique geographic location and extreme vulnerability of the nature of the northern latitudes on one territory have created environmental problems in the Murmansk region.
It was founded on May 28, 1938 and borders on Karelia, Finland and Norway. It is washed by the Barents and White Seas. Its area is 144902 sq. km, most of which lies beyond the Arctic Circle.
The development of the current territory of the region began after the founding of the city of Murmansk. Even now, out of 766,281 people living in it, according to 2015 data, about 93% are urban residents. Located in the Arctic Circle, its administrative center was called Romanov-on-Murman until 1917.
There is no unequivocal opinion about the etymology of the origin of the name of the city, but in 1915 a seaport was founded here, named Murmansk and the village of Semenovsky next to it. October 4, 1916 is considered the official date of the city's founding.
The wealth of minerals hidden in the Baltic crystal shield on which the region is located is unique and unmatched in diversity. Out of more than 1000 types of minerals discovered in its depths, and this is almost a third of those known in the world, 150 are not found anywhere else.
The most important of them are: apatite, as a raw material used in the production of phosphate fertilizers and nepheline - for the aluminum industry, the production of soda and cement. In addition, there are the largest deposits of iron ores, aluminum raw materials, zirconium, rare earth metals, vermiculite, nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum and many others.
The harsh climate of the so-called regions of the Far North, to which the Murmansk region belongs, has formed a unique composition of the flora and fauna. These are mainly mosses and lichens, from trees - dwarf birch and aspen, pine and spruce.
Small species diversity of the animal world. These are wolf, brown bear, fox, lynx, wild boar, reindeer, arctic fox and others.
The soils are not of interest for agricultural production, but there are many rivers and lakes. They, as well as in the waters washing the region of the seas, are the main resources of the local fauna. The marine fish species include cod, sea bass, halibut, herring and flounder. For river and lake - trout, salmon, grayling, pike, burbot, perch and other varieties. Some of them are still of commercial importance.
The Arctic is ranked eighth in the environmental rating of the regions of the Russian Federation, all other regions of the Northwestern Federal District are located below. The rating is made by the All-Russian public organization "Green Patrol" and the Union "National Ecological Corps".
The rating is published four times a year, this time it was compiled based on the results of the summer of 2019.
Note that the Murmansk region is in the top ten of this rating for the third year in a row. In 2018, Roman Pukalov, director of environmental programs of the all-Russian public organization Green Patrol, said that the Murmansk region is the only industrial region in the top ten. The rest - Tambov and Belgorod regions - are agricultural, where there are no serious industrial enterprises.
“This suggests that there is a movement for the better in the region,” said Roman Pukalov. - The state of the environment is satisfactory, I do not say excellent - no one in Russia received such an assessment. The region is being pulled up by a real improvement in the state of the environment, first of all - a decrease in emissions into the atmosphere.
At the end of this summer, in addition to the Murmansk region, the Tambov Region, Altai Territory, Belgorod Region, Altai Republic, Moscow, Magadan Region, Kursk Region, Ulyanovsk Region, and the Komi Republic were included in the top ten of the environmental rating.
The Chelyabinsk Region, Sverdlovsk and Irkutsk Regions are at the bottom of the rating. In Irkutsk, fires and floods played a role.
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The Murmansk region is easy to find on the map, it is the northernmost region of the European part of our country located on the Kola Peninsula, most of which is located beyond the Arctic Circle. It is a land of forests, endless tundra, rapids and thousands of lakes, but it is also an industrial region with large enterprises, leaders in their industry on a national scale. The country's only ice-free northern port is located here, and the administrative center of the Murmansk region, which is called the capital of the Arctic, is the largest seaport in the Arctic Circle.
The Murmansk region is an interesting and unusual region in many ways. It is this uniqueness and pristine beauty of the region that attracts guests from all over the world.
Here lovers of various types of tourism can find interesting things for themselves, the list of unusual places that can be visited in the Arctic is growing, and each of them has its own flavor.
In recent years, ecological tourism has become increasingly popular, which includes visiting places where nature has not yet been touched by man.
The Murmansk region can provide such tourists with a large number of opportunities for unity with nature. These are the Khibiny, where at any time there is snow in the hollows, Lovozero, rivers and thousands of lakes with untouched nature around them. This is a paradise for those who like to pick mushrooms and berries, and no permission is required.
Even an exotic type of tourism is possible here - Arctic tourism, which is developing with the support of the Murmansk Shipping Company. In summer, cruises of up to two weeks are organized annually to Franz Josef Land and to the North Pole on nuclear powered icebreakers. Not every region provides opportunities for mineralogical tourism, and in the Murmansk region you can get on an excursion to the most interesting deposits, accompanied by famous mineralogists.
Lovers of industrial tourism have something to do. You can visit operating enterprises on specialized excursions; there is also a lot of interesting things for stalkers and photographers of abandoned buildings and objects.
And also hunting and fishing, alpine skiing and mountaineering, reindeer and dog sledding, rafting, sightseeing and pilgrimage tourism ...
Maybe you should come to the Kola Peninsula and ski down the snow-covered slopes of the Khibiny, get acquainted with the culture and life of the Sami, see the performance of seals in the northernmost aquarium in the world, meet the real Santa Claus in Lapland, see how the sky blooms from the magical tints of the northern lights or even go to the North Pole on a nuclear icebreaker.
There are several ways to get to the settlements of the region, since the region is located at the intersection of transport routes and has access to the Northern Sea Route with year-round navigation.
69 wonders of the Kola North
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This is a complete encyclopedia of the most outstanding sights of the Russian North, including the Arkhangelsk, Vologda and Murmansk regions, the Republic of Komi and Karelia. The book will help you make amazing travels across the endless expanses of the northern part of Russia. Nature lovers will not be left indifferent by the harsh and at the same time beautiful landscapes, changing from mountain heights to endless tundra or taiga. Using the advice of this guide, everyone can make a fascinating virtual trip to the North of Russia.
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