Factors affecting ecology and the environment in the oil and gas industry

Factors affecting ecology and the environment in the oil and gas industry

The concept of environmental factors, their classification

1. Abiotic factors include components and phenomena of inanimate nature, directly or indirectly affecting living organisms. Among the many abiotic factors, the main role is played by:

2. Biotic factors - a set of relationships between living organisms, as well as their mutual influences on the environment. The action of biotic factors can be not only direct, but also indirect, expressed in the correction of abiotic factors (for example, changes in the composition of the soil, microclimate under the forest canopy, etc.). Biotic factors include:

  • phytogenic (the influence of plants on each other and on the environment);
  • zoogenic (the influence of animals on each other and on the environment).

3. Anthropogenic factors reflect the intense influence of humans (directly) or human activities (indirectly) on the environment and living organisms. These factors include all forms of human activity and human society, which lead to a change in nature as a habitat and other species and directly affect their lives. Every living organism is influenced by inanimate nature, organisms of other species, including humans, and in turn affects each of these components.

The influence of anthropogenic factors in nature can be both conscious and accidental, or unconscious. Man, plowing up virgin and fallow lands, creates agricultural land, develops highly productive and disease-resistant forms, settles some species and destroys others. These (conscious) influences are often negative, for example, the thoughtless dispersal of many animals, plants, microorganisms, the predatory destruction of a number of species, environmental pollution, etc.

Accidental influences are those that occur in nature under the influence of human activity, but were not foreseen and planned by him in advance: the spread of pests, parasites, the accidental import of various organisms with a load, unforeseen consequences caused by deliberate actions in nature , for example, by draining swamps, building dams, plowing virgin lands, etc.

Biotic environmental factors are manifested through the relationship of organisms belonging to one community. In nature, many species are closely interconnected; their relationship with each other as components of the environment can be extremely complex. As for the links between the community and the inorganic environment, they are always bilateral, reciprocal. Thus, the nature of the forest depends on the corresponding type of soil, but the soil itself is largely formed under the influence of the forest. Similarly, the temperature, humidity and illumination in the forest are determined by the vegetation, but the formed climatic conditions in turn affect the community of organisms living in the forest.

Main types of pollution

Let's consider the most common types of pollution. The most common are constant emissions of chemicals from industrial plants, cars, boiler houses. The increase in the volume of carbon dioxide leads to a gradual increase in temperature on our planet. This is a pressing problem for modern mankind. The oceans are suffering from human activities in the oil refining industry. Areas in the vicinity of oil fields are exposed to the destructive impact of industrial waste. This leads to disruption of gas exchange between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere.

The most dangerous is radioactive radiation. The radiation catastrophe has irreversible consequences: the development of genetic diseases, oncology, neurological diseases, early aging.

Contamination by infections and parasites is of considerable concern. Getting into the soil and water through sewers and landfills, harmful microorganisms interact with other inhabitants of nature. This can lead to a change in their properties, which will be detrimental to living organisms.

We have briefly identified the main sources of danger to life, negatively affecting human health.

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