Environmental problems of the Arkhangelsk region

Environmental problems of the Arkhangelsk region

Due to the location of the territories of the Arkhangelsk region in the zone of the Far North, taiga and tundra, the population is concentrated in large cities. The concentration of production in places of residence led to an increase in technogenic influence. Nuclear burials, industrial emissions, hazardous industries were the reason to talk about the environmental problems of the Arkhangelsk region.

Environmentally unfavorable objects of the region

There are 116 highly dangerous objects in Pomorie, among them they pose a threat to the environment:

  • New Earth Nuclear Test Site. 132 nuclear explosions were committed on it - 90% of the total number of explosions carried out in Soviet times. These tests caused irreparable damage to the Arkhangelsk region, destroying rocks and changing the radiation environment. For a long time, radiation waste was flooded off the coast of the Arctic, turning it into a time bomb. The Arctic territories are vulnerable due to the lack of heat and the slow speed of biochemical processes.
  • Plesetsk cosmodrome in Mirny. When rockets are launched, tons of toxic fuel are released into the atmosphere. Steps from missiles fall on 13 districts of Pomorie, damaging forests.
  • Severnoye Machine-Building Enterprise OJSC and Zvezdochka Ship Repair Center OJSC located in Severodvinsk. Sevmash's activities are related to the production of offshore oil production and military equipment. Combine "Zvezdochka" builds and repairs nuclear submarines. Due to the fact that the submarines store spent nuclear fuel, an unfavorable radioactive situation is created in the city, and there are no special places for storing such waste in the region.
  • There are pulp and paper mills in the region - Arkhangelsk and Kotlas, emitting 80,000 tons of hazardous substances into the atmosphere. For technical needs, they consume more than 60% of the total volume of water and poison it with harmful impurities.
  • Kotlas Electromechanical Plant - one of the main manufacturers of cylinders for gas fire extinguishing systems - throws cubic meters of dirty water into reservoirs.
  • Hydrolysis plants in Novodvinsk and Onega. The volume of pollution from these enterprises is 3% of the total in the region.

The Severodvinsko-Arkhangelsk section of the Severnaya Dvina River is experiencing the main hardships of the technogenic impact, half of the region's population lives here and industrial facilities of the Russian North are concentrated.

Air emissions

The main causes of atmospheric pollution in the Arkhangelsk region are emissions from thermal power plants, the work of paper and machine-building factories. They emit about 130,000 tons of hazardous substances into the atmosphere - this is 30% of the total amount of harmful emissions on the edge. Decay products cause acid rain, contribute to the accumulation of smog, which negatively affects the life of the ecosystem.

Motor vehicles make a significant contribution (about 26%) to atmospheric poisoning. Car exhaust gases contain about 200 harmful compounds.

State of water resources

The river network of the Arkhangelsk region belongs to the White Sea basin, it includes large rivers: Northern Dvina, Onega and Mezen. The main contribution to the pollution of the White Sea is made by the Severodvinsk industry. Wastewater contains about 30 types of hazardous substances: phenols, methanol, formaldehydes, aluminum, lead, cadmium. The ecological situation with the White and Barents Seas is complicated by the presence of radioactive waste in them. Only 33 sources in the region comply with sanitary and hygienic standards. Also, the reasons for the pollution of the waters of the northern rivers were the activities of timber processing, agro-industrial enterprises, and the mining industry.

In such a situation, the search for sources of drinking water becomes more difficult every year. In cities, the state of treatment facilities is poor due to the extreme deterioration of water pipelines.

Mining in the area

Geological exploration in the region is another of the unfavorable factors of influence on the environment. On the territory of the Arkhangelsk region there are deposits of diamonds, oil, gas, bauxite. Extraction of natural resources affects the state of the earth's rocks, entails soil pollution with sewage. The radius of the borehole poisonous influence is more than 2 km. The largest mining facilities: OJSC Severalmaz, OJSC Severo-Onega Bauxite Mine, OJSC Arkhangelsk Geologobychnoye Enterprise leave tons of hazard class V waste. Harmful components, accumulating in plants, with melt water enter the river channels, disrupting the fishery ecosystem.

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