Environmental problems of modern Russia

A sixteen-year record for the level of atmospheric pollution has been broken in the Russian Federation

Russia's environmental problems over the past few years have aggravated at times, which poses a threat to the existence of its citizens not only today, but also in the near future. Russians are faced with new environmental disruptions every day, and even those that we may not even notice, since they have already become the “norm”.

The scale of these problems is appalling. It is already possible to draw up lists of the most unfit for the existence of regions, living on the territory of which not without consequences affects the infrastructure, health and quality of life of the population.

Naturally, the formation of these very problems was not without the abuse of the people themselves, and the aggressive influence of man on the environment. But today, only we ourselves can try to change the situation for the better, and solve the environmental problems of Russia.

Further, the article will describe the current environmental problems of Russia.

It takes more than one millennium to neutralize all pollution that occurs daily on a large scale. Release of industrial waste into air, water and land, evaporation of hazardous compounds and industrial plastic structures. Irreversible errors of transport ships carrying oil, because of which it gets into the oceans. Disruptive systems that destroy rare rocks of the middle tiers of the soil, the decomposition of chemical structures within the soil, which harm the crop.

Photo source: pixabay. om

For two centuries, it was chemicals that caused the greatest damage to the ecosystem, and they continue to destroy the planet to this day. Man-made and artificial pollutants affect all areas of the environment, from toxic contamination of the air, ground and ground waters - to the destruction of the ozone sphere by the combustion of toxic compounds. The regularity of damage can very quickly destroy the planet, and cause gratuitous damage to humanity, if nothing is changed.

Over the past few years, the Earth's climate began to deteriorate rapidly, because of this, abnormal cataclysms occur in parts of the sky where they should not occur. Human and industrial activities have polluted the air so much that it has led to serious fluctuations in environmental performance.

Photo source: pixabay. om

The fumes evaporating from the chimneys of production stations, the exhaust vapors of cars, the burning of plastic and chemicals - all this leads to the destruction of the ozone sphere and the appearance of atmospheric holes on its surface, as a result of which hazardous substances can get out of the planet's orbit, which also negatively affect the environment. And for all of humanity, the high incidence of cancer, allergic diseases and asthma is caused by the pollution of the air we breathe.

What are the common environmental problems in Russia?

Air Pollution

Industrial waste emissions worsen the state of the atmosphere. Combustion of automobile fuel, as well as combustion of coal, oil, gas, wood, is negative for the air. Harmful particles pollute the ozone layer and destroy it. When released into the atmosphere, they cause acid rain, which in turn pollutes the land and water bodies. All these factors are the cause of oncological and cardiovascular diseases of the population, as well as the extinction of animals. Air pollution also contributes to climate change, global warming and an increase in ultraviolet solar radiation;


In the country, the process of deforestation is practically uncontrolled, during which hundreds of hectares of the green zone are cut down. The ecology has changed the most in the north-west of the country, and the problem of deforestation in Siberia is also becoming urgent. Many forest ecosystems are being modified to create agricultural land. This leads to the displacement of many species of flora and fauna from their habitats. The water cycle is disrupted, the climate becomes drier and the greenhouse effect is formed;

Water and soil pollution

Industrial and domestic wastes pollute surface and ground waters, as well as soil. The situation is aggravated by the fact that there are too few water treatment plants in the country, and most of the equipment in use is outdated. Also, agricultural machinery and fertilizers deplete the soil. There is another problem - the pollution of the seas by spilled oil products. Every year rivers and lakes pollute chemical waste. All these problems lead to a shortage of drinking water, since many sources are unsuitable even for the use of water for technical purposes. It also contributes to the destruction of ecosystems, some species of animals, fish and birds die out;

Household waste

On average, each resident of Russia accounts for 400 kg of municipal solid waste per year. The only way out is to recycle waste (paper, glass). There are very few enterprises that are engaged in the utilization or recycling of waste in the country;

Radioactive contamination

At many nuclear power plants the equipment is outdated and the situation is approaching catastrophic, because an accident can happen at any moment. In addition, radioactive waste is not utilized sufficiently. Radioactive radiation of hazardous substances causes mutation and death of cells in the human body, animal, plant. Contaminated elements enter the body along with water, food and air, are deposited, and the effects of radiation may appear after a while;

Destruction of protected areas and poaching

This illegal activity leads to the death of both individual species of flora and fauna, and the destruction of ecosystems as a whole.

Environmental problems in Russia are the object of close attention from the state and scientists. On the territory of one of the largest states in the world, there are many unique natural complexes that are of great importance not only for the country, but for the entire planet. The ecological situation in Russia is threatened by the same factors that all states face, and they are associated with the expansion of civilized spaces, the use of the planet's resources by man, the development of industry and the problems of pollution.

Major environmental issues

The most pressing environmental problems for the country can be divided into the following groups:

Regarding all of the above factors, constant monitoring and supervision is carried out, measures are being developed to minimize harm to the environment. But the measures taken are not always enough to solve the problem completely.

Environmental pollution situation

A huge number of industrial enterprises operate on the territory of Russia, the activities of which negatively affect the state of not only the territories located in their vicinity, but can also affect the ecology of entire regions.

Any production can cause harm to the environment, but the following industries are the most problematic for the environmental situation:

Their emissions, waste get into the air and water. Rivers and wind carry harmful substances over great distances. Falling out together with precipitation, they also poison the soil. As a result of the development of deposits, the natural landscape changes, dips and landslides are formed. All this has a negative impact not only on the state of the atmosphere, but also on the health of people living in areas affected by pollution. Soils on the territories of the deposits become unsuitable for agriculture and housing construction for a long time.

In large cities, the situation is exacerbated by exhaust emissions and increased electricity costs. This affects the state of the planet's ozone layer. Recent studies show that excess of the standard for the content of exhaust gases in the air is observed in more than 40 cities of Russia.

Environmental issues are also related to waste disposal. Radioactive contamination of soils in landfills has a long-term character and even after their elimination, the land in this place is unusable for decades. This means that for life, a person needs more and more new areas.

According to world studies, the country is included in the list of the most polluted countries in the world. The difficult environmental situation entails a poor quality of life and negatively affects the general condition of citizens.

The reason for the emergence of environmental pollution problems is the dynamic human desire to influence the environment. In response to the selfish actions of the most intelligent being, nature aggressively rewards what it deserves. The ecological situation in Russia requires an early resolution, otherwise there will be a serious imbalance between the person and the environment.

The geographic environment needs to be divided into two component categories. The first includes the habitat of living beings, the second - nature as a colossal storehouse of resources. The challenge for humanity is to learn how to extract minerals without violating the integrity of the objective environment.

What environmental problems exist in Russia

Environmental pollution, irrational use of materials, thoughtless extermination of flora and fauna - these mistakes are of the highest priority for the Russian Federation and have existed for a long time. Large industrial enterprises, agricultural corporations, and the individual's desire for maximum satisfaction of needs are becoming the main argument in the case of an extremely alarming environmental situation (see Environmental marketing of corporations). Insufficient desire to resolve a difficult situation involves the state in a greater crisis. The main environmental problems of Russia are as follows:

The government has practically left without control the activities of corporations involved in deforestation. To date, the situation has deteriorated sharply in the north-west of the country and in the regions of Siberia, where hundreds of hectares of trees are being destroyed. Forests are being modified in order to create agricultural plots in their place. This provokes the displacement of many species of animal and plant life from the areas that are their real home. With any form of cutting down of the green zone, 40% of the timber is an irrecoverable loss. Reforestation is difficult: a planted tree needs 10 to 15 years to grow fully. In addition, legal authorization is often required for restoration (see Liability for illegal logging: criminal and administrative liability).

Energy objects are among the bases that intensively oppress the biosphere. At present, the methods of extracting electrical or thermal resources are focused on the future in operation, while in the former periods the course was directed towards minimizing financial costs. Each energy facility accumulates a huge risk of causing significant injury to our planet. Even the regulation of the limits of negative effects is not able to fully eliminate the danger.

While extracting useful resources, a person pollutes groundwater, soil and atmosphere. Animals and plants are forced to live in unsuitable conditions. Oil transported by ships spills, resulting in the death of many creatures. A colossal amount of damage is caused by the process of mining coal and gas. Radiation pollution, the operation of nuclear power plants pose a threat and change the surrounding nature. These environmental problems in Russia will cause irreparable damage to the country if no significant measures are taken.

Interesting! The largest oil dump in the country is located on the territory of the Gulf of Finland. Pollution covers nearby soils and groundwater. Alarming statements appear: a large percentage of drinking water on the territory of the state is already unsuitable for consumption.

Polluted water bodies do not allow the use of the life-giving element to feed creatures. Industrial enterprises discharge waste into the aquatic environment. In Russia, there are a small number of treatment facilities, and much of the equipment is out of order, and this aggravates the problem. As water is polluted, its deficiency occurs, which leads to the death of ecosystems.

Russia is one of the most environmentally polluted countries in the world.

This is primarily due to man-made factors such as deforestation, pollution of water bodies, soil and atmosphere with industrial waste.

This is a misfortune not only for individual countries, but for the entire planet as a whole. Let's look at what environmental problems exist in Russia, global and basic.


Uncontrolled and illegal deforestation is being carried out in Russia. These are global environmental problems of entire regions of Russia. Most of these are observed in the Far East and north-west of the country. In addition to the fact that poachers cut down valuable tree species, which are already less and less, there is an acute problem of imminent deforestation of Siberian regions. Also, land is being cleared for agricultural land and for the extraction of minerals. In addition to economic damage to the state, uncontrolled deforestation causes irreparable harm to many ecosystems that have been created and maintained for millennia.

Deforestation has the following consequences:

  • Displacement of animals and birds from their original habitats.
  • Disruption of established ecosystems, increasing the greenhouse effect on the planet. As a result, global warming occurs, which, to one degree or another, leads to a change in almost all ecosystems on the Earth. In particular, the water cycle is disrupted, which leads to the establishment of a drier climate on the planet.
  • Accelerated destruction of the upper soil layers and their weathering. Deforestation of areas with mountainous and hilly terrain is especially dangerous, as it causes landslides and flooding.

Russian Energy and Ecology

The dependence of the environmental situation on electricity generation is the most direct, since there are three types of energy sources:

  • Organic, these include gas, oil, charcoal and wood itself.
  • Water, that is, the use of the power of the water flow to convert it into heat and electricity.
  • Atomic, or the use of energy released during nuclear reactions.

The operation of organic energy sources is directly related to their combustion. It must be said that deforestation is carried out not only in order to use wood as a fuel, but also then to clear a place for the extraction of coal, oil and gas, which in themselves are organic sources of energy.

The ecological problem of the use of oil, gas, coal is associated not only with the finite organic resources on the planet, but also with the problem of atmospheric pollution by substances that are obtained as a result of its combustion.

The large amount of carbon dioxide that enters the atmosphere and the lack of vegetation to fully absorb it these days lead to the formation of the greenhouse effect and global warming.

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