The pressing issue of humanity is the ecological crisis. Billions are allocated to solve the problem, but this does not bring visible results.
People are convinced that the instability of the ecosystem is associated only with harmful emissions, overflowing landfills.
But for the safe interaction of nature and man, it is necessary to form the correct eco-consciousness. The article will tell about the problem of ecological education and the measures taken to solve it.
Environmental education of the younger generation is a new concept in pedagogy. These are measures aimed at the development of thinking, habits of the child in relation to nature. Science introduces you to the world around you, teaches you to interact with it: take care of plants and animals, save resources, live in harmony with the world and society.
Building a respectful attitude towards nature is the goal of such education. Having achieved it, a child from an early age will learn:
There are 3 tasks to achieve this goal:
The result is the upbringing of a new generation of ecologically cultured people.
The very concept of "environmental education" in education is quite new. Back in Soviet times, environmental problems were approached with good optimism and appeals to take care of “our little brothers”. But so that in the conditions of the Federal State Educational Standard…. Yes, they loved nature, took care of it, called for its protection. Secondary school teachers paid attention to ecology, in natural history lessons, in extracurricular activities, during class hours, but we have only now reached the scale of SOS and alarm bells.
The beginning of the third millennium was marked not only by technological progress, but also by a serious degradation of the environment. Everything has its positive and negative sides - the technical progress of the negative is not just unpleasant, it is destructive for humanity and for the people. The ecological crisis is about to reach its peak. It will be achieved if we all together don’t say “stop, the ecology must be saved”. And our future generation will have to save it. Those who today, with a backpack on their backs, go to school to learn how this world works, what the world expects from it.
Society has set itself the task of raising a generation that understands environmental problems, has enough knowledge, and most importantly, feels its responsibility to the world around it, feels itself a part of it. Environmental education at school has become highly relevant. Yes, ecology is not mathematics. It is not taught at specially allotted hours, the rules are not memorized. But in the process of all training, students are greeted with eco-education every day, in many subjects, in educational and extracurricular activities of the school.
How is environmental education carried out?
Children come to school as completely naive and pure creatures. They are much more sensitive to everything, including environmental problems. Younger schoolchildren do not have a sufficient idea of what actions and behavior of people destructively affect nature, but they have already learned the minimum concepts in a preschool institution. Children are very sensitive to conversations about how (for example) young animals suffer, in which the hunter killed their mother, empathize with fish that find it difficult to breathe in a polluted reservoir. They are still kind, they care. Therefore, it is so important not to miss this moment in order to give maturing kids the right concepts and guidelines.
Environmental education in primary school has its own peculiarity - the process of education should become more complex. In children, the leading type of activity changes (from play to educational), visual-figurative thinking is replaced by abstract, the need for work in nature develops, but they still lack the appropriate knowledge and skills. Therefore, the forms and methods of education are still based on games, experiments, observations, experiments accompanied by conversations.
The main role in the eco-education of primary schoolchildren belongs to the course "Peace and Man" (recommended by the Federal State Educational Standard). The main function of the course is not to give the child ready-made knowledge, but to teach him how to get it on his own. The knowledge that he needs for moral orientation, for relations with the environment. The course consists of three blocks "Man and Nature", "Man and Society", "Man and Health". He encourages educators to create the necessary educational environment for students.
("The educational environment is a natural and artificially created socio-cultural environment of a student, which includes various types of means and content of education that can ensure the productive activity of a student" (according to A. Utorsky).
In the endless whirlpool of everyday affairs and worries, in the pursuit of material benefits, we often forget about what gave us the opportunity to live on earth. Nature, whose gifts a person sometimes uses so not rationally, gives us not only the possibility of existence, but also allows us to enjoy its truly unique beauty, instills the best moral qualities.
Environmental education, the purpose of which is to acquaint children with the life of nature, instilling responsiveness, the desire to preserve its wealth, is a fairly new section in pedagogy. However, the problems that this educational direction solves are very relevant, because the difficult environmental situation in the world forces us to take immediate measures to prevent a possible natural disaster.
It should be emphasized that ecological education should begin from early childhood, at the moment when the child is just beginning to learn about the world. The attitude to the surrounding nature of the baby depends on how adults will direct his actions.
Is it okay to hit the kitten or uproot the flowers? Why make bird feeders in winter? A growing person is interested in many questions. And he will look for the answer not in moralizing conversations, but in illustrative examples that adults demonstrate.
It is possible to talk long and interestingly about not cutting down trees, because people will have nothing to breathe, but at the same time drive away the hungry dog by shouting or even hitting him. Needless to say, such ecological education would be meaningless?
Ecology and life are closely related concepts, so it is important to teach children who are just beginning to learn about this vast unknown world, to hear and see with their soul, to be aware of themselves as a part of it.
To properly use the possibilities of environmental education, it is necessary to understand its essence.
Until recently, nature was studied from a purely biological point of view. Nevertheless, it has always been called the source of knowledge, since it is a storehouse of opportunities for personal development. This is what teachers should take advantage of, because the essence of environmental education is the ability to find harmony in everything that surrounds a person. Moreover, moral education is an integral part of getting to know the natural world, because in order to learn to feel and love non-human creations, you need to have spiritual potential.
Consciousness is formed on the basis of knowledge and beliefs, and the idea of nature as the highest harmonious substance is laid in the process of observing the development of the surrounding world.
Correct environmental behavior is based on individual actions, as well as on the assessment of these actions by others and the person himself.
Speaking about the essence of the influence of the teacher on the ecological development of the child, it is necessary to single out 2 factors that are the main ones in this process.