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Italian Environmental Policy
With the growth of environmental problems, which took on the nature of a climate crisis, more and more demands began to be heard about the need to conduct environmental policy, that is, the need to direct human activities in accordance with nature, with the help and participation of the state and political parties in order to ensure the preservation of ecological balance in nature.
Problems of drinking water in Italy.
Water taps in a number of regions of Italy flow with the level of toxic substances 5 times higher than the permissible norm according to European standards, thereby creating a danger for children and especially for newborns. The Scientific Committee has put forward an alarm, which has been authorized by the Commission of the European Union, to determine the state of Italian drinking water.
Italy is one of the European states that has violated more than all of the directives that set the limits for toxins in drinking water. Thirteen regions have failed to comply with the Brussels toxin limits for nine years. Among these regions we note Lombardy, Lazio, Tuscany, Piedmont, Apulia, Umbria, Campania and Trentino-Alto Adige. The European Commission also established that by 2012 the Italian water supply system should bring the indicators to European standards, but the Italian government again asked to postpone the implementation of the directive.
The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Italy has established that tap water is not dangerous for a healthy adult. But for children under the age of 18 and newborns, especially those who use artificial milk, and therefore drink more water, the risk is quite high.
The Federutility Federation, which brings together local service providers to provide the population with water, reassures citizens, arguing that the presence of arsenic, boron and fluorine in water at the moment is not a serious problem: “The danger exists only when poisonous substances are present in high concentrations. In any case, the municipalities in which the permissible limits are found are already taking all the necessary measures to solve this problem, ”said Renato Druziani, director of the Federutility hydro-ecological zone. Experts from Brussels recommend that additional analyzes be carried out for populations most at risk in order to assess the level of exposure to toxic substances, which varies depending on the type of diet and the environment in which people live.
The problem of city flooding and drought arises not only in Italy, but throughout the world. This happens for one very good reason - the greenhouse effect. Due to melting ice sheets, the sea level is gradually rising, which leads to the gradual inundation of parts of Italy, such as the Adriatic coast of Italy, and a decrease in the territory of Sardinia and Sicily. Raising the water level by one centimeter will make Italy lose 24 thousand square kilometers of soil - they will simply go under water. On the other hand, the drought is getting worse. In Italy, 27% of the territory has already been attributed to risk zones. Every year, the deteriorating land leads to the loss of 28 billion tons of agricultural crops for Italy.
In Italy, published the annual report "Environmental performance of cities", compiled by the National Institute of Statistics/ISTAT/based on research in 111 cities of the Apennines. According to the report, over the past year in Italy there was a significant improvement in atmospheric indicators, which allowed this Mediterranean country to take first place in Europe in air quality, according to AMI-TASS. And it is better not to go to Moscow and St. Petersburg - there is almost no air left. However, they shit on the adjacent areas.
Trento, Venice and Bologna were named the most environmentally friendly cities in Italy, followed by Terni, Belluno, Ravenna, Modena, Novara, and southern Syracuse and Massa close the ecological rating. As follows from the report and can be seen from the ranked list of cities in Italy - the indicators for the country as a whole, as well as indicators in the northern and southern regions, vary quite a lot. As a rule, the south of Italy lags far behind the north in many ecological criteria.
Among other things, experts noted more efficient waste collection and disposal procedures as a positive aspect of improving the environment in the Apennines. Experts note that the population has become more attentive to the separate collection of waste. Perhaps this is due to the "garbage crisis" in the southern cities of Italy and, in particular, in Naples, because of which the population realized the severity of the garbage problem.
Italians also began to treat water resources more frugally. In 2008, compared to the previous year, per capita water consumption decreased. On the other hand, the demand for energy resources has increased in the country. However, in recent years Italy has begun to apply the latest technologies in the energy sector and actively develop "green" energy in the country.
Two large spots of high air pollution with nitrogen oxides are visible in Russia in the area of St. Petersburg and Moscow - according to the report of the Main Geophysical Observatory. AND. . Voeikov (St. Petersburg), prepared on the basis of satellite information and observations of the network of Roshydromet stations for five years.
Sources of nitrogen oxides are industrial enterprises such as metallurgical and chemical plants, thermal power plants and automobiles. Considering that neither in Moscow nor in St. Petersburg, the number of industrial enterprises has increased in recent years, it seems obvious to assume that the main source of nitrogen oxides over megalopolises has become motor vehicles. Nitrogen oxides in the air enter into chemical and photochemical reactions with other pollutants, resulting in the formation of accumulations of harmful gaseous and aerosol impurities, including in the form of smog.
As Emma Bezuglaya, Doctor of Geography, told Science and Life, the zone of influence of emissions from cars and other anthropogenic sources in Moscow covers the territory, which includes not only the Moscow region, but also the regions of the Vladimir, Kaluga and Kostroma regions. The area of high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide exceeding the MPC (40 μg/m3) extends to Kolomna, Serpukhov, Vladimir, etc. 100-200 km around the metropolis.
The impact of emissions from enterprises and vehicles in St. Petersburg also extends not only to the city, but also to the suburbs, albeit to a smaller area than around Moscow. In St. Petersburg and in the cities of the Leningrad Region, the NO2 concentration zone above 40 μg/m3 extends from Vyborg in the northeast to Kingisepp in the southwest. So talking about ecologically clean and ecologically unfavorable areas in Moscow and St. Petersburg, apparently, can be a stretch. There are simply no such people today! But you shouldn't think that everything is fine in other Russian cities.
According to the Observatory. AND. . Voeikov, the air in Siberian cities is also far from clean. From an airplane, one can usually clearly see a torch of pollutants created by emissions from enterprises and vehicles in the largest cities of Siberia, which stretches from Omsk to Novosibirsk and further to Kemerovo and Novokuznetsk, Krasnoyarsk and Bratsk. According to observational data, the average concentrations of nitrogen oxides increase to the east from Omsk to Bratsk by more than 2 times, and from Omsk to Novosibirsk by 30%.
Italy is a country that has long attracted travelers with its beauty and way of life. Russians are no exception. Having visited the country at least once, many decide to move here for permanent residence. Italy has beautiful nature and wonderful climate. But there are also economic crises and other problems here. Resettlement to the country has its own characteristics. Therefore, before going there, you should find out what life is like in Italy.
The ecology of Europe leaves much to be desired. First of all, the problems are associated with a number of factors that have a detrimental effect on the environment. Although at the moment tremendous attention is paid to nature protection, it is not always possible to restore what has been lost.
The European continent has long ceased to be considered environmentally friendly. The region experienced early industrialization and industrial development, making it unfavorable.
The widest range of problems is observed here. Moreover, almost all ecosystems are partially destroyed or have undergone significant changes from their original characteristics.
Map of environmental performance in 2018 This is an aggregate indicator that reflects various aspects of the state of the environment and the viability of its ecological systems, the preservation of biological diversity, counteraction to climate change, the state of health of the population, the practice of economic activity and the degree of its the burden on the environment, as well as the effectiveness of state policy in the field of ecology.
Awareness of the danger of what is happening happened earlier than on other continents. This was the reason for the first serious steps aimed at confronting the destructive factors.
Foreign Europe is considered one of the most densely populated areas of the globe. With an average planet of 55 people per 1 km², a completely different situation can be traced here: the value varies in the range from 100 to 110 people.
Population density map of Europe. Number of people per 1 sq. km
At the same time, the distribution of people across almost the entire area of the continent is uniform. That is, there are practically no unpopulated or sparsely populated places.
A similar situation applies to urbanization. There are many more people living in urban areas than in rural settlements. In the region, the average is 73%, in Belgium - 87%.
Every day a modern person is forced to solve a lot of problems related to his work, upbringing and education of children, arrangement ...
Currently, on the territory of the Bryansk region there are the following forms of protected natural areas and objects: biosphere reserve, state nature reserve, state nature reserves, natural parks, natural monuments, dendrological parks and botanical gardens, medical and recreational areas; the creation of a national park is planned. On 1. 1.010, the area of natural specially protected areas in the region totaled more than 200 thousand hectares, which is almost 6% of the area of its territory. They include: the state natural reserve "Bryansk Les" - 12 186 hectares.