Ecological tourism in Russia is a part of tourism in Russia, for which the main tourist resource is the natural environment and its components:

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ⓘ Ecological tourism in Russia

Ecological tourism in Russia is a part of tourism in Russia, for which the main tourist resource is the natural environment and its components: landscape elements, the biological part of ecological systems, landscapes and other components. It can include ecological and geographical tourism, the objects of which are both living and inanimate nature, agroecological tourism, in which tourists lead a rural lifestyle on farms and farms, ethno-ecological tourism aimed at studying ethnic groups and their interaction with the natural environment.

Development of ecological tourism in Russia

Ecological tourism is a growing trend in the tourism industry. State regulation of ecological tourism in the Russian Federation is not singled out as a separate area and is solved within the framework of the general development of the tourism sector by local administrations through tourism committees and other bodies related to tourism activities. The procedure for visiting specially protected natural areas by tourists is regulated by the federal law "On Specially Protected Natural Areas".

In Russia, the emergence of the term "ecological tourism" refers to the second half of the 1980s, when the Bureau of International Youth Tourism "Sputnik" of the Irkutsk Regional Committee of the Komsomol developed several tourist routes in the coastal zone of Lake Baikal: "Ecotour along the Circum-Baikal Railway road "," Ecotour along the valley of the Goloustnaya river "and others. These routes were added to the catalog of the Bureau of International Youth Tourism "Sputnik" under the name "routes of ecological tourism", which implied that these routes are equipped in such a way that the presence of tourists has minimal impact on the natural environment. Also in organizing the routes "Sputnik" cooperated with the combat student squad named after Uldis Knakis of the Faculty of Game Management of the Irkutsk Agricultural Institute - an environmental movement that was emerging at that time on Lake Baikal.

In the 1990s, the development of ecological tourism in the country slowed down due to the reduction in government funding for tourism and the redirection of tourist flows towards outbound tourism, which was caused by political and economic changes in Russia.

In 1995 - 1996, the implementation of environmental tourism projects began in the Far East and Northwest. In the Russian Far East, under the project of WWF and the United States Agency for International Development USAID, support for ecological tourism in specially protected natural areas, including reserves, has been started. Also in the Vodlozersky National Park in the North-West of Russia, within the framework of the TACIS "Technical Assistance to the CIS" program, a plan for the development of ecological tourism was developed. In 1998 - 2001, within the framework of the "Dissemination of experience and results" program of the Institute for Sustainable Communities ISC, funded by the US Agency for International Development, the experience was applied in reserves and national parks of the Khabarovsk Territory and Amur Region, Altai-Sayan Region, North Caucasus. The Dersu Uzala Ecological Tourism Development Fund was established in the course of implementing projects for the development of ecological tourism in order to develop ecotourism activities in the system of specially protected natural areas and to provide theoretical and practical assistance to the promotion of the international concept of sustainable tourism in Russia.

In 2000, the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation approved the "Main directions of activity of state natural reserves for the period up to 2010", and in 2003 "Main directions of development of the system of state natural reserves and national parks in the Russian Federation for the period until 2015 ". In these regulatory legal acts, a program of actions was proposed that is necessary for the development of cognitive ecological tourism in specially protected natural areas.

In 1999 - 2001, in the Primorsky, Khabarovsk Territories and the Amur Region, there was a program for the development of ecological tourism as a way to preserve the biological diversity of the Far Eastern ecological region, implemented by the World Wildlife Fund with financial support from the United States Agency for International Development. 600 thousand US dollars were spent on the implementation of the program. Within the framework of the program, 17 projects of state and public organizations were supported, developing a system of specially protected natural areas and the infrastructure of the Khanka, Lazovsky, Bolshekhekhtsirsky, Khingansky, Komsomolsky, Bolonsky reserves was significantly developed. In the buffer zones of the reserves, as well as in other protected areas, ecological paths were laid for tourists, 10 guest bases were built, equipment was purchased. In the basins of the Samarga and Khor rivers, the national Udege tribal communities of the villages of Agzu and Gvasyugi got the opportunity to develop ecological tourism. As part of the development of underwater tourism, underwater routes were examined, which were considered promising. In the Khabarovsk Territory, on the basis of the Bolshekhekhtsirsky Reserve and the Utes Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, a permanent school has been organized to train professional guides.

In the fall of 2001, an organizational congress of the Russian Association for Ecological Tourism RAET was held, the purpose of which is to support and develop ecological tourism and unite the organizations involved in the conservation of the nature of the Russian Federation. The RAET includes associations of reserves and national parks, public organizations and travel companies.

In the first half of the 2010s, the Altai Territory, Irkutsk Region and Buryatia developed in terms of ecological tourism. From 2010 to 2016, the number of tourists in the Altai Territory increased by 1. times and amounted to 2.5 million people. In the Irkutsk region, from 2010 to 2016, the number of tourists doubled and amounted to 1. million In Buryatia, from 2014 to 2016, the number of tourists increased 1. times and amounted to 8. thousand people. Tourist clusters and special economic zones of tourist and recreational type were created in these regions. In the Altai Territory, the tourist and recreational cluster "Belokurikha" operates as a resort of federal significance, which is supported by the federal target program "Development of domestic and inbound tourism for 2011 - 2018", as well as a new project "Belokurikha-2" is being implemented. In the Irkutsk Region and Buryatia, on the shores of Lake Baikal, two tourist clusters and special economic zones of a tourist and recreational type have been created: "The Gates of Baikal" and "Baikal Harbor".

ⓘ Ecological tourism in Russia

Ecological tourism in Russia is a part of tourism in Russia, for which the main tourist resource is the natural environment and its components: landscape elements, the biological part of ecological systems, landscapes and other components. It can include ecological and geographical tourism, the objects of which are both living and inanimate nature, agroecological tourism, in which tourists lead a rural lifestyle on farms and farms, ethno-ecological tourism aimed at studying ethnic groups and their interaction with the natural environment.

Development of ecological tourism in Russia

Ecological tourism is a growing trend in the tourism industry. State regulation of ecological tourism in the Russian Federation is not singled out as a separate area and is solved within the framework of the general development of the tourism sector by local administrations through tourism committees and other bodies related to tourism activities. The procedure for visiting specially protected natural areas by tourists is regulated by the federal law "On Specially Protected Natural Areas".

In Russia, the emergence of the term "ecological tourism" refers to the second half of the 1980s, when the Bureau of International Youth Tourism "Sputnik" of the Irkutsk Regional Committee of the Komsomol developed several tourist routes in the coastal zone of Lake Baikal: "Ecotour along the Circum-Baikal Railway road "," Ecotour along the valley of the Goloustnaya river "and others. These routes were added to the catalog of the Bureau of International Youth Tourism "Sputnik" under the name "routes of ecological tourism", which implied that these routes are equipped in such a way that the presence of tourists has minimal impact on the natural environment. Also in organizing the routes "Sputnik" cooperated with the combat student squad named after Uldis Knakis of the Faculty of Game Management of the Irkutsk Agricultural Institute - an environmental movement that was emerging at that time on Lake Baikal.

In the 1990s, the development of ecological tourism in the country slowed down due to the reduction in government funding for tourism and the redirection of tourist flows towards outbound tourism, which was caused by political and economic changes in Russia.

In 1995 - 1996, the implementation of environmental tourism projects began in the Far East and Northwest. In the Russian Far East, under the project of WWF and the United States Agency for International Development USAID, support for ecological tourism in specially protected natural areas, including reserves, has been started. Also in the Vodlozersky National Park in the North-West of Russia, within the framework of the TACIS "Technical Assistance to the CIS" program, a plan for the development of ecological tourism was developed. In 1998 - 2001, within the framework of the "Dissemination of experience and results" program of the Institute for Sustainable Communities ISC, funded by the US Agency for International Development, the experience was applied in reserves and national parks of the Khabarovsk Territory and Amur Region, Altai-Sayan Region, North Caucasus. The Dersu Uzala Ecological Tourism Development Fund was established in the course of implementing projects for the development of ecological tourism in order to develop ecotourism activities in the system of specially protected natural areas and to provide theoretical and practical assistance to the promotion of the international concept of sustainable tourism in Russia.

In 2000, the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation approved the "Main directions of activity of state natural reserves for the period up to 2010", and in 2003 "Main directions of development of the system of state natural reserves and national parks in the Russian Federation for the period until 2015 ". In these regulatory legal acts, a program of actions was proposed that is necessary for the development of cognitive ecological tourism in specially protected natural areas.

In 1999 - 2001, in the Primorsky, Khabarovsk Territories and the Amur Region, there was a program for the development of ecological tourism as a way to preserve the biological diversity of the Far Eastern ecological region, implemented by the World Wildlife Fund with financial support from the United States Agency for International Development. 600 thousand US dollars were spent on the implementation of the program. Within the framework of the program, 17 projects of state and public organizations were supported, developing a system of specially protected natural areas and the infrastructure of the Khanka, Lazovsky, Bolshekhekhtsirsky, Khingansky, Komsomolsky, Bolonsky reserves was significantly developed. In the buffer zones of the reserves, as well as in other protected areas, ecological paths were laid for tourists, 10 guest bases were built, equipment was purchased. In the basins of the Samarga and Khor rivers, the national Udege tribal communities of the villages of Agzu and Gvasyugi got the opportunity to develop ecological tourism. As part of the development of underwater tourism, underwater routes were examined, which were considered promising. In the Khabarovsk Territory, on the basis of the Bolshekhekhtsirsky Reserve and the Utes Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, a permanent school has been organized to train professional guides.

In the fall of 2001, an organizational congress of the Russian Association for Ecological Tourism RAET was held, the purpose of which is to support and develop ecological tourism and unite the organizations involved in the conservation of the nature of the Russian Federation. The RAET includes associations of reserves and national parks, public organizations and travel companies.

In the first half of the 2010s, the Altai Territory, Irkutsk Region and Buryatia developed in terms of ecological tourism. From 2010 to 2016, the number of tourists in the Altai Territory increased by 1. times and amounted to 2.5 million people. In the Irkutsk region, from 2010 to 2016, the number of tourists doubled and amounted to 1. million In Buryatia, from 2014 to 2016, the number of tourists increased 1. times and amounted to 8. thousand people. Tourist clusters and special economic zones of tourist and recreational type were created in these regions. In the Altai Territory, the tourist and recreational cluster "Belokurikha" operates as a resort of federal significance, which is supported by the federal target program "Development of domestic and inbound tourism for 2011 - 2018", as well as a new project "Belokurikha-2" is being implemented. In the Irkutsk Region and Buryatia, on the shores of Lake Baikal, two tourist clusters and special economic zones of a tourist and recreational type have been created: "The Gates of Baikal" and "Baikal Harbor".

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