Ecological problems of Baikal

Ecological problems of Baikal

Speaking about Baikal, it is worthwhile to understand that it is an ecosystem that includes many components. Since it is a huge reservoir of freshwater reserves, the ecological problems of Lake Baikal are considered and taken very seriously. The main issues include issues related to the lake, catchment, forests and of course microorganisms, which are an integral part of the ecosystem.

The importance of forests

At first glance, it may seem that a giant lake is a self-sufficient object that does not depend on any factors, but this opinion is erroneous. We all know that Siberia is the richest forest region and that the forest is the most important part of the entire ecosystem. The disappearance of forests leads to irreparable and destructive processes.

Forests are needed for proper distribution and regulation of effluents. In addition, it should be borne in mind that it is forests that contribute to moisture retention. They are a natural barrier to strong winds, trapping which prevent water evaporation. It is thanks to the forests that the stable water level and the high flow of rivers are maintained.

Unfortunately, at the moment, illegal logging is a global problem that is classified as an environmental crime. Felling of forests and shrubs, destruction of forests occurs on the territory of Buryatia, Irkutsk region. The greatest damage is caused by the Selenga River. All types of felling are prohibited on the territory, except for sanitary measures, but in fact new areas without forests appear regularly.

In addition, forest fires inflict significant damage, which most often occur precisely through human fault. Sorry people irresponsible approach to the issue of fire safety, especially when it comes to outdoor recreation. Also, all the same lumberjacks who want to hide their illegal activities with the help of fire make their contribution. There are those who specially set fire to this or that site in order to acquire it later at a lower cost.

Forest fires are catastrophic. Indeed, one lighted match can lead to an uncontrolled fire of hundreds of thousands of hectares, and these are incredibly large areas of forest plots. Such fires have already occurred in 2015 and in 2016, when the fire caused enormous damage. During this period, Olkhon, the island, which, due to its popularity among tourists, was already experiencing anthropogenic pressure, was badly damaged.

Mass tourism

We all know how popular Baikal is. It is visited by thousands of tourists every year, but unfortunately, this has led to uncontrolled tourism that damages the ecosystem. Such popularity has led to the rapid development of infrastructure, new hotels and hotels are being built, access roads and parking lots are being developed, which certainly leads to the destruction of areas of nature.

It is worth mentioning vacationers who prefer to rest as savages, although they do not enjoy the benefits of civilization, but their presence in nature does not pass without a trace. Continuous flows of tourists and tourists cause irreparable damage to vulnerable soil, which is prone to erosion. Some areas are so badly damaged that they resemble a desert, because of this, plants are trampled, and the soil simply does not have the resources to provide new vegetation. The most popular sites suffer the most in terms of traffic, as well as the roads that lead to them.

When we talk about tourists and vacationers, it is worth understanding that they do not just come to admire the beauty and leave. Rest on Lake Baikal presupposes being on the territory of people for several days, which means that they will simply eat, drink, have fun and enjoy all the benefits. There is certainly an accumulation of waste and debris. Due to the fact that there are no landfills here, and garbage collection for recycling is not carried out, a global problem arises.

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