Demographic and environmental problems of the Belgorod region; essay

Ecological problems of the Belgorod region Geography teacher MOU secondary school 43 g

According to 2010 data, it is recognized as the cleanest region in Russia. The maximum level of concentration of pollutants has not been exceeded neither in water, nor in atmospheric air, nor in soil. And, nevertheless, there are environmental problems of the Belgorod region and they are known.

General characteristics

Belgorod Region is located in the southwestern part of Russia. Its population is 1,547,936 people, according to 2015 data, and an area of ​​27.1 thousand square meters. km. Since the day of its foundation, its territory has not been changed. The administrative center is the city of Belgorod with a population of 381,425 people.

History and natural resources

The lands of the Belgorod region passed from the Alans to the northerners in the 8th century. Then the Khazar protectorate spread here, and after it the Chernigov principality. Following the Mongol-Tatar invasion, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania tried to seize the region. In 1500, the territory came under the rule of Moscow. Throughout its history, the Belgorod region was part of the Kiev, Azov, Voronezh and Kursk provinces, until January 6, 1954 it was finally formed.

The Kursk magnetic anomaly enters the region. In addition to iron ores, bauxite, apatite, chalk, sand, gold, graphite and other minerals are mined here. The pride is the mineral waters: medicinal-table, radon and others. However, its territory belongs to the category of low-water, because rivers, lakes and swamps occupy only 1%. The largest rivers are Vorskla, Psel and Seversky Donets.

The diversity of flora and fauna is typical for the meadow, steppe and forest-steppe zones. There are more than 15,000 species of animals alone.

The main natural resource of the region is black soil, which occupies 77% of its lands.

Resource Usage and Implications

The main elements of pollution

The places of storage of toxic substances, mineral fertilizers, pesticides or prohibited substances are also dangerous. Especially if this storage does not comply with sanitary standards, and disposal is not carried out or is not carried out in accordance with regulations.

The largest industrial enterprises in the region are: Stoilensky and Lebedinsky mining and processing plants, Oskol and Belgorodsky cement and Starooskolsky plastics plant Oskolplast. But their contribution to air pollution is not as great as road transport, the number of which is growing every year. In addition, industrial enterprises carry out measures for the purification of both emitted waste gases and waste water. The efficiency of such structures reaches 98%.

Road transport accounts for over 57% of all exhaust gases in the region. This is especially the problem of cities. First of all, Belgorod and Stary Oskol. Moreover, the latter's situation is even worse than that of the regional capital.

General assessment of the environmental situation

The environmental problems of the Belgorod region are created by several harmful industrial industries in the region, some of which are located in municipalities. A striking example is the city of Stary Oskol. In the southwest of this settlement, there are the harmful Lebedinsky and Stoilensky iron ore quarries. According to the criteria existing in Russia today, the city should officially be classified as a zone in which a critical ecological situation is observed.

If we generally assess the environmental problems of the Belgorod region, then the natural features that have a direct impact on the ecological state of the region include several factors.

Firstly, this is the location within the Voronezh anteclise. In this area, the basement (Precambrian) is as close as possible to the surface. This feature allows the discovery of large-scale mining, which are concentrated in the crystalline basement of this platform. This is the reason for the technogenic impact, which is associated with the extraction of minerals.

Secondly, even if speaking very briefly, the environmental problems of the Belgorod region are associated with its geographical position on the southwestern slope of the Central Russian Upland. Subject to the presence of sedimentary rocks around, as well as due to the openness of the terrain and low forest cover, strong soil erosion occurs, organic and mineral substances are carried to the surface. All these components, ultimately, upset the ecological balance in the region.

Thirdly, the peculiarities in atmospheric circulation play a role. In winter, easterly winds prevail, while in summer - westerly and northwestern. All this leads to air pollution, which occurs not only due to its own sources, but also due to substances coming from the countries of near and far abroad.

The water resources of the region somewhat brighten the situation. The region is located on the Russian Plain, in that part of the watershed, which is almost completely protected from the penetration of pollutants by water. True, this also has a downside. In the region, the rivers are very shallow, so the regime of water protection zones is regularly violated, and low forest cover leads to the siltation of many reservoirs and river beds.

Another factor influencing the ecological problems of the Belgorod region is its location in the zones of steppes and forest-steppes, in which chernozem soils are widespread. They trap radionuclides and other contaminants. And this leads to the accumulation of harmful and polluting substances.

Belgorod Region

Geographic location.

Belgorod Region is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, part of the Central Federal District. Located in the center of the European part of Russia. The distance from Belgorod to Moscow is 694 km. It shares borders with the Kursk and Voronezh regions, with Ukraine. Area - 27.1 thousand km2 (2002)

General assessment of the environmental situation

The environmental problems of the Belgorod region are created by several harmful industrial industries in the region, some of which are located in municipalities. A striking example is the city of Stary Oskol. In the southwest of this settlement, there are the harmful Lebedinsky and Stoilensky iron ore quarries. According to the criteria existing in Russia today, the city should officially be classified as a zone in which a critical ecological situation is observed.

If we generally assess the environmental problems of the Belgorod region, then the natural features that have a direct impact on the ecological state of the region include several factors.

Firstly, this is the location within the Voronezh anteclise. In this area, the basement (Precambrian) is as close as possible to the surface. This feature allows the discovery of large-scale mining, which are concentrated in the crystalline basement of this platform. This is the reason for the technogenic impact, which is associated with the extraction of minerals.

Secondly, even if speaking very briefly, the environmental problems of the Belgorod region are associated with its geographical position on the southwestern slope of the Central Russian Upland. Subject to the presence of sedimentary rocks around, as well as due to the openness of the terrain and low forest cover, strong soil erosion occurs, organic and mineral substances are carried to the surface. All these components, ultimately, upset the ecological balance in the region.

Thirdly, the peculiarities in atmospheric circulation play a role. In winter, easterly winds prevail, while in summer - westerly and northwestern. All this leads to air pollution, which occurs not only due to its own sources, but also due to substances coming from the countries of near and far abroad.

The water resources of the region somewhat brighten the situation. The region is located on the Russian Plain, in that part of the watershed, which is almost completely protected from the penetration of pollutants by water. True, this also has a downside. In the region, the rivers are very shallow, so the regime of water protection zones is regularly violated, and low forest cover leads to the siltation of many reservoirs and river beds.

Another factor influencing the ecological problems of the Belgorod region is its location in the zones of steppes and forest-steppes, in which chernozem soils are widespread. They trap radionuclides and other contaminants. And this leads to the accumulation of harmful and polluting substances.

Ecology of the Belgorod Region

EcoRodinki/Belgorod Region/Ecology of Belgorod Region

Ecology of the region. According to 2007 data, in the cities of Belgorod, Gubkin, Stary Oskol, the average annual surface concentrations of benzopyrene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide in the atmospheric air ranged from 1.1 to 2.4 MPC. An excess of the content of substances in the waters of the rivers: Seversky Donets, Uda, Lopan, Vorskla, Vorsklitsa, Oskol was revealed from 1.06 to 3.47 MPC for iron, nitrites, phosphates, phenols, cobalt, etc. A quarter of the sources of centralized drinking water supply does not meet the requirements sanitary rules. According to geophysical studies, the region of operating mining enterprises of the KMA, and primarily the Starooskolsk iron ore region, is located in an area characterized by the presence of a large number of natural radioactive anomalies of high intensity. These radioactive anomalies are currently being discovered or are being actively penetrated by wells and mine workings. The creation of huge open dumps of rock mass, the massive explosions of large volumes regularly carried out in open pits, the operation of powerful concentration plants and other methods contribute to the removal of radioactive geological formations to the surface, can significantly worsen the radioecological situation in the territory of the operating mining enterprises of the KMA.

In addition, the radioecological situation is complicated by the fact that the specified territory is located within the influence of the "Chernobyl radioactive trace". In addition, ferruginous quartzites and their host rocks KMA contain rather high concentrations of such environmentally hazardous elements as lead, zinc, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, cadmium, vanadium, manganese, germanium, boron, bismuth, antimony, selenium, etc. mercury. Preliminary studies have shown that as a result of industrial emissions from the mining complex, as well as dusting of tailings within a radius of 15-20 km, technogenic geochemical anomalies are formed on the soil with an increased content of iron, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium and radioactive elements. In general, technogenic soil pollution is recorded within a radius of more than 50 km. The territory of the mining enterprises of the KMA is located in the contour of one of the most powerful anomalies in the world, and, as you know, the influence of a strong electromagnetic field exacerbates the impact of other geoecologically unfavorable factors. The described geoecological situation, apparently, has a direct impact on the sharp increase in the number of many diseases, including cancer in the city of Gubkin, Stary Oskol and others, which emerged with the beginning of the active activity of the mining enterprises of the territory.

Popular posts
Tourism in Spain

Spain, vacation at sea: the best places Sunny, bright and cheerful Spain annually attracts millions of tourists. On the beaches of the Mediterranean Sea you can stay in comfort, take a break from

  • . 13 minutes
Eco-tourism in Italy: hotels

Eco-tourism in Italy: hotels Eco-tourism strides across the planet. For Europeans, the word “eco” is no longer exotic, but rather a designation of an everyday lifestyle. Italy in recent years has become one

  • . 15 minutes
We use cookies
We Use Cookies to Ensure That We Give You The Best Experience on Our Website. By Using The Website You Agree to Our Use of Cookies.
ALLOW COOKIES.