Anthropogenic factors: activities affecting the environment; its changes under their influence

Environmental factors of the environment; scheme, types, examples and adaptation of organisms

Environmental factors are the totality of all environmental attributes (temperature, humidity, light, air pressure, soil properties, air composition, relief, living organisms, etc.) that affect the body or the ecological system as a whole. Not all factors are the same in their significance, the influence of some of them is insignificant.

Classification of environmental factors

All known ecological signs of the environment, depending on their origin and nature of influence, are divided into three main groups:

Abiotic factors include inorganic and inanimate factors, biotic factors - the impact of living nature (including humans), anthropogenic - human influence on nature, both deliberate and unconscious or uncontrollable. This division is conditional, since each factor exists and manifests itself as a result of the general impact of the environment.

Let's take a closer look at each type of environmental factor.

Abiotic factors (influence of inanimate nature)

Inanimate nature has an indirect or direct effect on all living beings. Significant changes in environmental conditions (temperature, light, humidity, soil properties, air composition, etc.) can become critical for a living organism and even lead to its death. Abiotic environmental factors include:

  • Climatic - precipitation, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure and others;
  • Orographic - features of the relief, altitude;
  • Edaphic - the composition of the soil, its physical properties, fertility, acidity (pH), mineralization and others;
  • Chemical - the gas composition of the atmosphere and water, salt content in water, soil composition and other chemical properties of the environment;
  • Hydrographic - the density of water, its flow rate, flow rate, light regime and others;
  • Pyrogenic - the impact of fires that have arisen for natural reasons.

Biotic factors (influence of wildlife)

Living organisms are in constant interaction with each other, building various types of intraspecific and interspecific relationships. Depending on which kingdom a living organism belongs to, the classification of biotic factors is carried out as follows:

  • Phytogenic - factors of influence of plants;
  • Zoogenic - factors of influence of animals;
  • Mycogenic - factors of influence of fungi;
  • Microbiogenic - factors influencing microorganisms.

Anthropogenic factors (human influence)

Anthropogenic factors are changes in nature that occur as a result of human activity. By mastering nature and adapting it to their needs, people influence flora and fauna by transforming their habitat. The influence can be indirect, direct or conditional.

Environmental factors of the environment; scheme, types, examples and adaptation of organisms

Specimen Ecology

Materials for preparing for the exam. Online Handbook of Biology. Section 8. Ecology and the doctrine of the biosphere. Chapter 8. Ecology of individuals.

Specimen Ecology


Habitat (life) is a part of nature that surrounds living organisms and has a certain effect on them.

On our planet, living organisms have mastered four habitats (Table 8.):

  • aquatic ;
  • ground-air ;
  • soil ;
  • organismic.

The first was the aquatic environment. Then parasites and symbionts appeared, using the organismic habitat. Later, after the emergence of life on land, living organisms inhabited the ground-air environment, and at the same time created and populated the soil. Under the soil habitat is meant not only the soil itself, but also the rocks of the surface of the lithosphere.

Table 8.. Comparison of living environments

Note: PBP - primary biological products; EMF - elements of mineral nutrition.

  • Anthropogenic chemical environmental factors and their impact on human health
  • Completed by:
  • Ismailov Shakhmurat Tairzhanovich
  • Zhusipbekov Diaz Daurenuly

  • Purpose
  • The concept of environmental factors, their classification
  • Anthropogenic factors
  • Anthropogenic pollution
  • Anthropogenic chemical pollution and its impact on human health
  • Conclusion

  • Expansion and consolidation of knowledge about environmental factors and their influence on organisms.
  • Development of knowledge about the various interconnections and relationships of organisms, as well as the influence of human activities on them.
  • Learn about the impact of anthropogenic chemical factors on human health.

The concept of environmental factors, their classification

  • Individual components of the habitat that affect living organisms, to which they react with adaptive reactions (adaptations), are called environmental factors, or ecological factors. In other words, the complex of environmental conditions affecting the vital activity of organisms is called ecological environmental factors.
  • There are factors of inanimate nature - abiotic (climatic, edaphic, orographic, hydrographic, chemical, pyrogenic), factors of living nature - biotic (phytogenic and zoogenic) and anthropogenic factors (impact of human activity). Limiting factors include any factors that limit the growth and development of organisms. The adaptation of an organism to its environment is called adaptation. The external appearance of an organism, reflecting its adaptability to environmental conditions, is called a life form.

Anthropogenic factors reflect the intense influence of humans or human activities on the environment and living organisms.

These factors include all forms of human activity and human society, which lead to a change in nature as a habitat and other species and directly affect their lives.

Every living organism is influenced by inanimate nature, organisms of other species, including humans, and in turn affects each of these components.

The following types of anthropogenic factors are subdivided:

  • physical - the use of atomic energy, movement in trains and airplanes, the influence of noise and vibration, etc.;
  • chemical - the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, shell contamination Land with industrial and transport waste; smoking, alcohol and drug use, excessive use of drugs;
  • biological - food; organisms for which a person can be a habitat or a source of food (viruses, bacteria, other parasites);
  • social - associated with relationships between people and life in society.

Anthropogenic pollution

Unlike natural pollution of the environment, for example, as a result of a volcanic eruption, forest fires, falling meteorites, etc., the volume of which is more or less stable over time, anthropogenic - is gaining momentum. In modern times, humanity's pressure on the environment has grown dramatically.

Cities are being built, vast areas in the countryside are occupied by technical monocultures, forests and swamps are being destroyed. The biological diversity of the natural environment is decreasing. Reducers are not able to completely recycle waste generated by human society.

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