Environmental factors are the totality of all environmental attributes (temperature, humidity, light, air pressure, soil properties, air composition, relief, living organisms, etc.) that affect the body or the ecological system as a whole. Not all factors are the same in their significance, the influence of some of them is insignificant.
All known ecological signs of the environment, depending on their origin and nature of influence, are divided into three main groups:
Abiotic factors include inorganic and inanimate factors, biotic factors - the impact of living nature (including humans), anthropogenic - human influence on nature, both deliberate and unconscious or uncontrollable. This division is conditional, since each factor exists and manifests itself as a result of the general impact of the environment.
Let's take a closer look at each type of environmental factor.
Inanimate nature has an indirect or direct effect on all living beings. Significant changes in environmental conditions (temperature, light, humidity, soil properties, air composition, etc.) can become critical for a living organism and even lead to its death. Abiotic environmental factors include:
Living organisms are in constant interaction with each other, building various types of intraspecific and interspecific relationships. Depending on which kingdom a living organism belongs to, the classification of biotic factors is carried out as follows:
Anthropogenic factors are changes in nature that occur as a result of human activity. By mastering nature and adapting it to their needs, people influence flora and fauna by transforming their habitat. The influence can be indirect, direct or conditional.
Materials for preparing for the exam. Online Handbook of Biology. Section 8. Ecology and the doctrine of the biosphere. Chapter 8. Ecology of individuals.
Habitat (life) is a part of nature that surrounds living organisms and has a certain effect on them.
On our planet, living organisms have mastered four habitats (Table 8.):
The first was the aquatic environment. Then parasites and symbionts appeared, using the organismic habitat. Later, after the emergence of life on land, living organisms inhabited the ground-air environment, and at the same time created and populated the soil. Under the soil habitat is meant not only the soil itself, but also the rocks of the surface of the lithosphere.
Table 8.. Comparison of living environments
Note: PBP - primary biological products; EMF - elements of mineral nutrition.
The concept of environmental factors, their classification
Anthropogenic factors reflect the intense influence of humans or human activities on the environment and living organisms.
These factors include all forms of human activity and human society, which lead to a change in nature as a habitat and other species and directly affect their lives.
Every living organism is influenced by inanimate nature, organisms of other species, including humans, and in turn affects each of these components.
The following types of anthropogenic factors are subdivided:
Unlike natural pollution of the environment, for example, as a result of a volcanic eruption, forest fires, falling meteorites, etc., the volume of which is more or less stable over time, anthropogenic - is gaining momentum. In modern times, humanity's pressure on the environment has grown dramatically.
Cities are being built, vast areas in the countryside are occupied by technical monocultures, forests and swamps are being destroyed. The biological diversity of the natural environment is decreasing. Reducers are not able to completely recycle waste generated by human society.
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